Legal Consensus, by Tey Tsun Hang


Whoa, I really went on a blogging hiatus!

Thanks to all who asked how I’ve been doing.

I’ll keep it short — in my early 20’s, I was not exactly very wise or practical with money matters. So I’ve spent the past couple of years reading up on topics like personal finance and sitting down to really think about my career direction.

With that out of the way, I finally got round to reading Legal Consensus. 

It is an excellently researched and painstakingly referenced book (the content is in no way “fake news” or figments of an overactive imagination — the footnotes are a very detailed list of the factual events that occurred).

I have collated a few excerpts which capture the essence of the substance of the content.

I have also included a quote by the author, Tey Tsun Hang, and a quote on why the rule of law matters.

legal consensus book 

You may order a copy of Legal Consensus from Select Books.

TEY TSUN HANG on his academic integrity

“I am no longer willing to self-censor,” Tey wrote to the colleague who had advised him. “I certainly do not want any longer to compromise my intellectual honesty.

Source: The Monthly


It requires that society be ruled by law, and not by the arbitrary (often self-interested) decisions of the small group of men and women who happen to wield public and private power at any given point in time. If the laws are unclear, secret, constantly changing, or retroactive, or if officials and judges do not comply with the law impartially without fear or favour, then it becomes impossible to act within the law.

Source: World Justice Project


Pg 3: The imposition of Asian values [served] as a replacement for western liberal ideology, which was deemed by the PAP as threat to its political dominance. . .the importation of Asian values has been seen as artificial and selective; certain Confucianist values like obedience to authority were emphasised, while other values like validity of criticism against evil governments were conveniently neglected.

Pg 76: An accused [would] be found guilty as long as the statements scandalised the judiciary. Therefore, no one can make any adverse comments on the judiciary, regardless of the extent of truth there is in the comments. This is an untenable position [and] may potentially condone judges who do not act in the best interests of justice.

Pg 121: Such clinical and carefree approach in this area of jurisprudence, where execution of the condemned prisoner is the end product, leaves a lot to be desired.

Pg 127: …the perceived need for out-of-bound markers (OB markers) to set the limits of political participation even with an open and consultative government.

The basis for the existence of OB markers lies in a patronising view of society: citizens have to be protected from their own irrationality by a father-figure in the form of the state.

Pg 128: The ideology of pragmatism, together with a paternalistic and elitist mindset, has enabled the PAP to carry through unpopular policies, in the name of national interest.

[The political model] reflects a doubtful trust in society’s judgment…this conception of politics provides the rationale for the PAP’s “monopoly of power,” because it is able to denounce any political interference that does not follow the official rules.

Pg 131: Civil society [in Singapore] was not left to develop independently, but had to develop according to PAP guidelines.

The idea of a “civic society,” as opposed to civil society, was first mentioned by George Yeo. The notion of civic society highlights the civic responsibilities of citizens, instead of their rights, as in the conventional understanding of civil society. The key difference between civil and civic society is that civil society engages the state in political matters, while civic society does not. The emphasis on civic society reveals the Executive’s preference for a state-endorsed civic society rather than a liberal civil society.

The Executive was able to maintain control and consensus through a strategy [that included] circumscribing the limits of the Law Society’s statutory powers, reducing the legal profession’s independence in self-regulation, and creating a climate of fear which keep members of the legal profession safely within prescribed limits.

Pg 161: Civil society in Singapore, therefore, is not being genuinely liberated, but is being “steered in a fixed and institutionalised framework,” [and] should not be confused with a fully fledged civil society endowed with autonomous associations organised independently from the state.

Source: Legal Consensus, by Tsun Hang Tey (2011)

Get a Copy @ Select Books


Busy Last Few Months


A couple of loyal readers asked how I’ve been doing, so here’s a quick update.

Split into three parts: my blogging, professional, and personal life.

+ + +


a) I have continued to update the prolific Mr. Yoong’s blog excerpts throughout this year — check them out here!

b) I’ve been meaning to review Tey Tsun Hang’s book, Legal Consensus, for some time now. Hopefully I can get to it by the end of the year (I am doing a bit of traveling next month to visit my family in Maine, and have “some other stuff to get to” after that).


Verdict: Totes Amazeballs.

Tey’s publication is a coolly concise book on “Singapore’s schizophrenic jurisprudence.”

Here’s a paragraph from the second chapter to whet your intellectual appetite:

The danger arises when ‘government-articulated collective interests in the name of culture and community becomes synonymous with state interests’. When this happens, any criticism of the government, even those that are constructive, becomes criticism subversive of the state and hence the community’s interest. The system becomes open to abuse by governments seeking to strengthen their political power and legitimise their actions via legal formalities within a ‘thin’ conception of the rule of law.
Legal Consensus, by Tey Tsun Hang (Page 5)

I’ll update my social media accounts more regularly once I resume some activity for jessINK-related matters (see below). This year I’ve been enjoying doing more things offline versus online.


a) As I wrote over a year ago, jessINK’s new direction has been on my mind for the past few weeks and months.

In the past year, I’ve shifted my interests away from indie publishing in order to explore some of my other skills and interests. I have some ideas for what I’d like jessINK 2.0 to be about. It’ll still (and always will) involve SOME degree of writing — my first love forever ♥ — just in a new direction.

It’s because I’m exponentially happier writing when the process is not narrowly dictated by commercial niche genres.

I really appreciate the readers who’ve appreciated my work over the years, so that keeps me motivated to offer good value to my new audience(s) in future, whether it’s in publishing or another field.


Award-winning book.

b) Playmates, the first book in my psych thriller series, was a finalist in the 9th Indie Excellence Awards last year. That made me smile coz it’s a pretty big contest with tons of entries.

c) Matt Posner, my co-author on Teen Guide, sent me this complimentary mug featuring the book cover. It’s been 5 years since we starting collaborating on it. OMG where did the time go!



That’s not a particularly glam or “PR-worthy” photo of myself (I’m in a night dress, which is what I sometimes wear while working from home)…but, having an acne history, I’m quite pleased that breakouts have become more manageable these days. A lot of it is related to stress management and emotional health.


a) I relocated to Florida earlier this year in January, after living in Maine for several years.

This was a good move on my part, albeit it took many months of “analysis paralysis” before I finally decided that something had to change in terms of geographic location. Maine is a pretty state, but it can be “desolate” (an adjective used by one of my American friends) depending on which part you are in.

The first few weeks in my new space were devoted to house-cleaning, baking, cooking, and figuring out what was wrong with the washing machine.

b) I passed the basic rider course earlier in the year, so my driver’s license says “Motorcycle Also.”

That was just something I used to think about getting during my teenage days, so I’m glad I got that done even though I’m a LONNNGG way off from being a skillful rider.

At the very least, I got a solid foundation from Highlands Professional Motorcycle Training based on a biker friend’s recommendation. Great coaches who were very positive, focused, and looked out for the well-being of the students.

c) The natural terrain is something else I’ve been getting to know a little better. Alligators and turtles in the small canals are common in certain areas.

Relationship-wise, the guy in the shadow pointing pic above makes me smile and I make him laugh — and that’s important. I will leave it up to you to guess whether or not he rides a bike.

On a slight tangent, I like using the following two brands of sun screen: Badger and Babyganics. I use them a lot if I’m spending some time outdoors.

My skin is very sensitive and I prefer organic skincare products. Right now I use a basic soap cleanser, beauty balm, and sun screen. I prefer to keep things simple on that front and not overload my face with chemicals.

d) Since I haven’t lived or worked in Singapore for Quite A While, I can only gauge what it’d feel like to live there now based on friends’ postings on Facebook, along with updates from sites like The Online Citizen.

Quality of life can be a subjective thing, since it is partly dependent on a person’s preferences and comfort zone(s) when it comes to feeling like a certain location feels like home.

A lot of my friends or former classmates occasionally gripe about SG, but continue to stay because of:

  • Their family network, and
  • The convenience of transport and amenities.

My immediate family members felt differently, so I grew up within a different way of thinking so to speak.

Here’s the core sentiment I remember the most while growing up in Singapore: that it never felt like home.

This was due to a combination of factors, such as:

  • The feeling of claustrophobia from the ever increasing population density,
  • Feeling trapped by education/career/housing options, and
  • Feeling that freedom of speech did not exist without severe repercussions.

The constant gleam of the latest and greatest shopping malls and eateries didn’t make me feel any different deep inside.

No doubt variety is good when it comes to food, but one can simply cook up a storm at home if malls are struggling to attract customers due to high rentals, etc.

PAP and Property


Thanks to netizens + readers for contributing to this post.

Presented in 6 parts:

INTRO: Excerpts on Singapore Property
Part 1: Nassim Jade + NParks + Gardens By The Bay + Corals At Keppel Bay
Part 2: Sim Lian + Far East + MapleTree + GoodWood
Part 3: Suntec REIT + CityDev + Pontiac Land + JTC
Part 4: Sentosa DC + GSH + Marina Bay + CapitaLand
Part 5: Keppel Land + Sentosa Cove + White Group



1) We can infer from their cash-only purchases of condominiums during the “Hotel Properties Scandal” that all of the extended Lee family are probably cash millionaires. . .government connections can be very lucrative in state-run Singapore.

Source: AndyXianWong


Singapore Real Estate. Image from Bloomberg.

2) The government is “the largest landowner in Singapore. . .the Land Acquisition Ordinance of 1955 and its amendment in 1966 were the chief policies that laid the groundwork for [the Singapore government] to acquire land from private holders.

Source: Emerald Group Publishing (2015)

3) CityDev is the third largest landowner in Singapore after the government and the family of Ng Teng Fong.

Source: AsiaWeek (2000)


“Ng Teng Fong tops Singapore rich list.” (2007)

4) Forbes’ list of the 50 richest people in Singapore was dominated by real estate moguls as property emerged as the main source of wealth for 12 tycoons on the list.

Source: Property Guru (2015)

5) Property is the main factor in growing prosperity of two-thirds of names on Forbes top 50.

Source: Urban Land Rent (2015)

+ + +

PART 1: Nassim Jade + NParks + Gardens By The Bay + Corals At Keppel Bay


Lee Suan Yew (one of Lee Kuan Yew’s brothers) was a past director of Singapore’s Hotel Properties Ltd. HPL is headed by Malaysian-born tycoon, Ong Beng Seng.


In 1996, Lee Kuan Yew bought a Nassim Jade unit (a condominium project by Hotel Properties) at a discount during the soft launch without HPL (a publicly listed company) seeking permission of its shareholders.

LKY’s relatives who also purchased units at discounts include:

  • Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. LKY);
  • Lee Hsien Loong + Ho Ching (son and daughter-in-law);
  • Pamelia Lee (sister-in-law);
  • Kwa Kim Li (niece);
  • Lee Wei Ling (daughter);
  • Lee Kim Mon (sister);
  • Freddy Lee (brother);
  • Dennis Lee (brother); and
  • Gloria Lee (sister-in-law).

All the purchases amounted to more than $10 million and were carried out without mortgages and loans.

Lai Kew Chai was a Malaysia-born Singaporean judge and the longest-serving member of the Supreme Court Bench, having served for almost 25 years as a Judge. He was a former partner of LKY’s law firm of Lee and Lee and a close friend of LKY and family. He bought a discounted unit at Nassim Jade and was the presiding judge on Tang Liang Hong’s case (Tang Liang Hong was a lawyer and opposition Workers’ Party candidate, who was bankrupted after raising questions about the Lee family’s Nassim Jade purchases).

For more details on the Nassim Jade saga, here are some articles:


Class of 1962 reunion in 2012. Source: ACS Alumni

The above ACS 1962 reunion picture shows that Ong Beng Seng, Managing Director of HPL, was a former classmate or schoolmate of Kwa Chong Seng (nephew of Mrs. LKY).

  • NOTE: Chew Choon Seng (beside Ong Beng Seng in above ACS reunion pic) has been a member of the board of GIC since January 2004. Chew is Chairman of the Singapore Exchange, Chairman at Singapore Tourism Board, and the former CEO of Singapore Airlines.


Christina Ong has been the Managing Director of Club 21 since 2007 (estimated worth of S$150 million). She is a well-known hotelier and fashion retailer and has been Chairman of NParks since 2007.


Christina Ong and Ong Beng Seng. Source: Forbes

Her husband is Ong Beng Seng of Hotel Properties Limited (HPL). NParks manages the Gardens By The Bay project.



Chang Hwee Nee, member on board of directors of Gardens by the Bay (2011+).

Heng Swee Keat is married to Chang Hwee Nee. Mr. Heng was Principal Private Secretary to SM Lee Kuan Yew from 1997 to 2000. Ms. Chang, a President Scholar, is the former Deputy Secretary (Policy) of Ministry of Education and a member of the board of directors of Gardens by the Bay.

The development of Gardens By The Bay came under the scrutiny of the Auditor-General in 2015 for lapses in the control of contract variation works.

The Auditor-General’s Office’s test-checks revealed a general lack of documentation, failure to obtain approval and laxity in control over contract variations by NParks in managing the development of the Gardens By The Bay project, which has an estimated total contract value of S$1.06 billion.

There was no assurance that NParks had not spent more funds than necessary.

Source: CNA (and PDF 2014/2015 report)

Checks by the AGO found that managers of the $1 billion Gardens by the Bay project had awarded over $20 million of contracts through a waiver of competition, without compelling reasons.



“The development comprises 366 luxurious waterfront homes.” ~$10million for a 4-bedroom unit.

Mrs. Koh-Lim Wen Gin, a former Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) chief planner, has been an independent director of Keppel Land since January 2010. She has been a board member of NParks since 2010.

Her daughter, Ms. Koh Lin-Net, was one of the buyers of Keppel Land’s units at its Corals at Keppel Bay project. Koh Lin-Net is the chief executive of the Media Development Authority and prior to that was deputy secretary of trade at the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Ms Koh and her husband Lawrence Low bought a unit at Corals for slightly below $10.1 million.

Mrs. Koh-Lim Wen Gin’s husband is Koh Seow Chuan, retired founder of DP Architects. Under Koh’s leadership, DP Architects has been responsible for many iconic buildings in Singapore, including Suntec City, Paragon, Bugis Junction and Esplanade-Theatres on the Bay.

+ + +

PART 2: Sim Lian + Far East + MapleTree + GoodWood


Ong Ye Kung (Sembawang GRC candidate; 2015) is married to Diana Kuik Sin Leng. Mr. Ong was a former top civil servant and Principal Private Secretary to PM Lee Hsien Loong.

Ong’s wife, Diana Kuik Sin Leng, is the executive director of Sim Lian (owned by the Kuik family). Sim Lian has undertaken over S$2 billion worth of contracts, including public projects for the Housing Development Board (HDB), DBSS flats, and other government projects.

Ong Chit Chung (1949 – 2008) was a former MP, parliamentary secretary, and a director at Sim Lian. Associate Professor Sim Loo Lee was a former HDB director and an independent director of Sim Lian.

It is interesting to note that the Government did not consider the potential conflict of interests when it invited a Sim Lian board director to also sit on the board of HDB.

Netizen Melvin Chong says:

Don’t Be Stupid, Singaporeans. This is Detention Barrack Singapore-Style with Damn Bloody Shoddy Standard.”


a) Ng Teng Fong

Robert Ng Chee Siong is the son of Singapore property tycoon and Far East Organization founder, Ng Teng Fong. Robert Ng is a board member of Temasek and is married to Yeoh Saw Kheng (楊素瓊), the third daughter of Dr. Yeoh Ghim Seng, the former Speaker of Parliament of Singapore (Source: CapitalProfile PDF).

Minister for Defence Ng Eng Hen is said to be the nephew of Ng Teng Fong (who had 10 siblings).

  • Reader Tip: A forum poster said the Chinese newspapers mentioned Ng Eng Hen as “the nephew” of Ng Teng Fong. Does anyone have a newspaper clipping?

Ng Eng Hen at the wake of Ng Teng Fong.

One in six houses in Singapore today is built by the Ng family.

Ng Teng Fong’s family has close ties to the governments of Singapore, Hong Kong and China (Source: PDF document). The Ngs have also enjoyed a close relationship with Lee Kuan Yew.

The late Mr. Ng Teng Fong was billed as Singapore’s richest man by Forbes magazine in September 2009.

b) Colleagues

Leong Hong Kee was executive director at Far East Organization from 1993 to 2008 and a member of Singapore’s parliament in Singapore for 32 years until his retirement in 2006.

Heng Chiang Meng served as executive director of Far East Organization from 1996 to 1997, during which time he was also a member of parliament. He resigned from FEO amid allegations of conflict of interest between private and public-sector roles. Heng has been a board director at Keppel Land since 2005.


Kwa Kim Li is the Managing Partner of Lee and Lee law firm. Ms Kwa is a director in Mapletree Commercial Trust. In addition, she sits on the Boards of Sentosa Development Corporation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy and Singapore Chinese Girls’ School.


Singapore’s Mapletree Raises US$1.4 bil for China Real Estate Fund. Source: Mingtiandi, 2013

Mapletree Commercial Trust is a unit of Singapore sovereign wealth fund Temasek Holdings’ property arm, Mapletree Investments. Mapletree is a government-linked company (GLC).

Kwa Kim Li is the niece of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. LKY).



Mavis Khoo-Oei is part of the Khoo clan consisting of 14 heirs of late banker Khoo Teck Puat, founder of Maybank, Malaysia’s most valuable bank (market cap:$23 billion). She is the Chairman of Goodwood Park Hotel. Her husband was Humphrey Oei, who is a grandchild of Oei Tiong Ham. Incidentally, Oei Tiong Ham is a forefather of Teo Chee Hean.

In 1986, the Brunei authorities issued a warrant for Khoo Teck Puat’s arrest on charges of defrauding the bank.

+ + +

PART 3: Suntec REIT + CityDev + Pontiac Land + JTC


Chew Gek Khim is a grandchild of Tan Chin Tuan. She is a relative of Kwa Geok Choo through Tan Chin Tuan (her mother is Dr. Tan Kheng Lian, daughter of Tan Chin Tuan and cousin of Kwa Geok Choo).

Chew Gek Khim joined the Board of Directors of Suntec Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) on 21 January 2014 and was appointed Chairman on 17 April 2014.

Edwin Tong is an Allen & Gledhill Partner, who has made headlines as the defense lawyer acting for Pastor Kong Hee in the high-profile City Harvest case. He is a PAP candidate in the Marine Parade GRC in GE2015.


City Harvest at Suntec (2013). Source: CN

Pastor Kong Hee, City Harvest Church founder and co-owner, paid $9.33m for a luxury duplex unit at Sentosa Cove in 2007. Kong and five others are alleged to have misused $50 million of church funds and then falsified church accounts to cover up the misuse. They are accused of funnelling millions from the church’s building fund to pay for the Crossover Project, to boost the music career of Kong’s wife Ho Yeow Sun.

In 2012, City Harvest Church increased its stake in Suntec Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre to 39.2 per cent, from its original 20 per cent in 2010. The church’s executive pastor, Aries Zulkarnain, said “we are co-owners of this property together with Suntec REIT.”


Philip Yeo was formerly the Special Adviser for Economic Development in the Prime Minister’s Office (2007-2011), and former Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Defence for Defence Research, Logistics and Industry (1979-1985). He is a director of CDL and a member of the advisory board at NTU Business School.

Kwek Leng Joo, brother of Kwek Leng Beng, was appointed as a Director of CDL in 1980. He served as the President of Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry (SCCCI) and is currently an Honorary President of SCCCI.


Kwee Liong Seen is one of the four Kwee brothers who share ownership of Pontiac Land, a major real estate company in Singapore. Kwee Liong Seen is executive director of Pontiac Land and a member of the advisory board at NTU Business School.

The other brothers are Kwee Liong Keng, Singapore’s Non-Resident Ambassador to Poland, Kwee Liong Tek, and Kwee Liong Phing.

There is a Kwee Liong Phing in ICIJ’s Offshore Banking database.


Ngiam Shih Chun, relative of Ngiam Tong Dow, is a board member of JTC Corporation.

Augustin Lee, is Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Manpower (2010+), Deputy Chairman of the CPF Board, and a JTC Board Member (2011+).

Ng Chee Meng, brother of Ng Chee Khern and Ng Chee Peng, was a JTC Board Member (2013-2015).

AGO’s audit of the contracts (total contract value of $510.18 million) for the International Cruise Terminal development project undertaken by Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) revealed lapses in controls and management of contract variations.

+ + +

PART 4: Sentosa DC + GSH + Marina Bay + CapitaLand


Kwa Kim Li (niece of Mrs. LKY), Ngiam Shih Chun (relative of Ngiam Tong Dow), and Lt-Gen Bey Soo Khiang are board members of Sentosa Development Corporation.


Former cabinet minister Mah Bow Tan was the fifth biggest shareholder in GSH Corporation in 2014. As of 18 Mar 2014, Mah owned 365,575,000 shares with a current market value of about S$28 million. According to John Harding, Mah Bow Tan’s son, Warren Mah, studied at the prestigious University of Pennsylvania — fully paid for on a scholarship from Monetary Authority of Singapore (a statutory board).


Keppel Corp director Alvin Yeo, who is also the senior partner at law firm Wong Partnership, is paying $6.54 million for a unit on the 32nd floor of the luxury project. Keppel Land director and permanent secretary Niam Chiang Meng is paying $4.577 million for his unit, also on the 32nd floor.


Jennie Chua, icon of Singapore’s hospitality industry, is the former spouse of Goh Kian Chee, the only son of former Deputy PM Goh Keng Swee.

Goh Kian Chee took 5 years to clear $280,000,000 of debt. He is now retired and enjoys leisurely tennis and golf.

+ + +

PART 5: Keppel Land + Sentosa Cove + White Group


Tan Yam Pin, director at Keppel Land, has been a member of the Singapore Public Service Commission since 1990. Mr. Tan was appointed as a Member of the Public Service Commission in 1990.

According to Wikipedia, Singapore’s Constitution, and PSC’s 2012 Annual Report:

The Public Service Commission (PSC)’s constitutional role is to appoint, confirm, promote, transfer, dismiss and exercise disciplinary control over public officers in Singapore.

It considers the suitability of candidates for appointment as Chief Executive Officers of Statutory Boards; it is also responsible for the planning and administration of scholarships provided by the Government of Singapore.


Chua Thian Poh was #26 on Forbes’ Singapore’s 50 Richest list (2015).


Three major Chinese community organisations in Singapore — the Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations (SFCCA), Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCCI) and Business China — organised a celebratory dinner for Mr Lee Kuan Yew’s 90th Birthday at Shangri-La Hotel. Photo: Ooi Boon Keong

Mr. Chua is also the President of the Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations (SFCCA) and a long-time grassroots leader, serving as Chairman of Bishan East Citizens’ Consultative Committee.

He started the Ho Bee group of companies and ventured into property development. Ho Bee was the sole bidder for the en bloc sale of Coral Island on Sentosa Cove.

As revealed by AGO, 33 days after he “retired” from SCPL, Mr Chua was allowed to tender for sales of Sentosa Cove land through Ho Bee.


Peh Chin Hua is the executive chairman of White Group, a holding company with properties and business interests in China and Singapore. He was also a Singapore Member of Parliament from 1988 to 2001. He holds numerous positions in various clans, including the Peh Clan Association.

In 2013, White Group signed a $12 billion deal to develop a vast township site in China.

Peh Chin Hua’s younger brother is Desmond Peh Chin Chye, Managing Director of Just Education Holdings. There is a “Peh Chin Chye” in ICIJ’s offshore banking database.

Peh Shing Huei is the son of Peh Chin Hua. Peh Shing Huei was formerly The Straits Times’ China bureau chief, based in Beijing.

PAP Government and Scholars


This post is presented in 6 sections:

INTRO: Excerpts on Singapore scholarships
PART 1: Ministers’ Children and/or Government Relatives (Scholars)
PART 2: Scholar Scandals
PART 3: Foreign-Born Scholars in Government or Civil Service
PART 4: Reader Tip on Foreign-Born Scholars
PART 5: Additional Info



1) “Singapore’s science and technology agency A*Star [draws] on taxpayers’ money to offer scholarships. . .”

Source: WSJ

2) A government economic review panel recommended a target of 150,000 foreign-born students by 2012 — more than double the 2005 figure of 66,000.

Source: Rapid Growth in Singapore’s Immigrant Population (2012)

3) The typical profile of our scholars has changed. The vast majority of scholars come from very wealthy family backgrounds. . .for the rich, the prestigious scholarship is more like a trophy.”

Source: Mr Wang

4) In 2008, the PSC revealed that 47% of the PSC scholarship recipients that year lived in HDB flats, and 53% lived in private housing. This is an over representation of private housing as up to 85% of Singaporeans live in HDB flats.

Source: NCMP Yee Jenn Jong

barr cover

5) In Barr and Skrbis’ book Constructing Singapore, they systemically outline the elite selection and formation process in Singapore. As Singaporeans move up the education system into secondary schools and junior colleges, the ‘scholars’ are continuously sorted from the ‘commoners’ and the would-be future elite are herded together into a small number of elite institutions. The best are offered the coveted Public Service Commission Scholarships, Singapore Armed Forces Scholarships and those at the top of the pyramid of public service would then be absorbed into the elite Administrative Service and made mandarins.

Ho Khai Leong [concedes] that the pervasive extent of state socialization has nurtured a cookie-cutter generation of leaders with relatively similar political outlook cut out from the same mould.

Source: Examining Meritocracy & Elitism in Singapore (Soh Yi Da; 2013)

6) Concerns have been raised among parliamentarians and members of the public that foreign students may be depriving Singaporeans of university places, and that taxpayers have to subsidize their fees.

Source: Asian Universities: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges (2004)

7) “EACH YEAR ABOUT $360 MILLION IS SPENT ON FOREIGN STUDENTS. . .the PSC spends about $400,000 to send each scholarship recipient overseas.”

Source: Act for Singapore + AsiaOne

8) This is absurd. Government scholarships are funded by taxpayers’ money and should be channeled where it is needed most.

Source: Hsien-Hui Tong (2014)

9) These “foreign talent” students [are] “hand-picked” by the officials of Singapore’s Ministry of Education after being put through written tests and interviews.

Source: Privilege, Prejudice, Predicament: “PRC Scholars” in Singapore (Yang P., 2014)


Minister for Defence Teo Chee Hean pinning the rank epaulette on his son Eng Siang’s uniform. Source: ST

10) Surely, as top-dollar ministers, these fathers should be going to their colleagues to say:

“Hey! Thank you for thinking so highly of my son. But I cannot accept this. Could we give it back so that we can give it to another candidate whose parents cannot afford to pay?”

An officer and gentleman would, in my view, say that.

Source: A Singaporean Says (re: ministers’ children getting government scholarships)

11) The PSC is vested with the disciplinary control of civil servants.

In 2012, 71 new disciplinary cases were reported to the PSC. Together with the 46 cases that were brought forward from the previous years, the PSC processed a total of 117 cases in the year.

The three main types of misconduct for cases completed in 2012 under the Regulations were Immoral Behaviour, Indebtedness and Theft/Robbery.

Source: PSC Annual Report (2012)

+ + +


1. LEE HSIEN LOONG + Family Members = Scholars

Lee Hsien Loong was awarded the president’s scholarship in 1970 and the Singapore Armed Forces (SAFOS) scholarship in 1971. His brother Lee Hsien Yang, and his sister Lee Wei Ling were also President’s Scholars. His son, Li Hongyi, is a PSC Scholar.

His father, Lee Kuan Yew, was awarded an Anderson Scholarship to Raffles College, while his mother, Kwa Geok Choo, was a Queen’s Scholar. His wife, Ho Ching, was a President’s Scholar.

2. MAH BOW TAN + Son = Scholars

Mah Bow Tan was a former Colombo Plan Scholar and President’s Scholar.

According to John Harding’s website, Mah Bow Tan is the father of Warren Mah (who received an MAS scholarship to study overseas; funded by Singapore taxpayers).

A concerned netizen says:

Over his 19 years as Cabinet Minister, Singaporeans (and NOT the PAP) have paid $2m Minister Mah Bow Tan an estimated handsomely-humongous S$33 million in total salary/bonuses.

Despite above, he did not send his son Warren Mah to university on “Father’s Scholarship” (i.e. out of his own pocket) but managed to land him a Govt Scholarship (from Monetary Authority of Singapore) to study at the prestigious University of Pennslyvania in USA. The MAS scholarship is worth some S$300,000 — which again, by PAP standards, is merely “half a peanut.”

3. TONY TAN + Son = Scholars

Tony Tan was a recipient of the Singapore Government State Scholarship in 1959. Tony Tan has 3 sons: Patrick, Philip, and Peter.

Patrick Tan Boon Ooi is an Associate Director at A*Star’s Genome Institute. He was a recipient of the president’s scholarship and the Loke Cheng Kim scholarship in 1987. The Loke Cheng Kim scholarship is an overseas bond-free scholarship offered by a non-profit organisation.

4. TEO CHEE HEAN + Son = Scholars


Teo Chee Hean is the father of Teo Eng Siang. Teo Eng Siang received a PSC Overseas Merit Scholarship in 2005 to study International Relations and Philosophy at Brown University (scholarship funded by Singapore taxpayers). Brown University’s tuition fee for 2015-2016 is US$48,272 per annum.

A netizen says:

Shameless Teo Chee Hean. He is a million dollar minister and his son gets a free scholarship fully paid for by Singaporeans. This is disgusting.”
— Alex Tan, 2012

5. PHILIP YEO + Son = Scholars

Gene Yeo is the son of former A*Star’s Chairman Philip Yeo. Philip Yeo was the sole recipient of a Fulbright scholarship in 1974.

Funded by the prestigious Lee Kuan Yew Graduate Fellowship from Singapore, Gene Yeo earned a Ph.D. in Computational Neuroscience from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

In 2007, A*Star wanted to sue a graduate student blogger for implying that the agency was corrupt.

The 25 year-old blogger alleged that A*Star “bribed universities to enrol its scholars, paid professors to accept scholars into their labs and suggested that its scholars enrol in universities with which it had ‘connections’ rather than the more expensive, top-notch ones.”

Source: Straits Times

6. DR. ALINE WONG’s Son = Scholar

Prof. Wong Tien Yin, a former President’s Scholar, is the son of former senior minister of state, Dr. Aline Wong.

7. GRACE FU’s Son = Scholar

Minister Grace Fu Hai Yien is the mother of Marcus Lee Jian Ying, an SAF Overseas Scholar.

8. BROTHERS of NG CHEE MENG = President’s Scholars


Ng Brothers | Image by Roy Ngerng

Ng Chee Meng, former Chief of Defence Force and PAP Candidate (2015), has two brothers: Ng Chee Peng (former Chief of Navy) and Ng Chee Khern (former Chief of Army). Ng Chee Peng and Ng Chee Khern were President’s Scholars.

9. TAY ENG SOON’s Daughter = Scholar

Late senior minister of state for education Tay Eng Soon is the father of Lucy Tay. Lucy Tay is a President’s Scholar. A 2007 article mentioned she was with MOE’s personnel department where she helped recruit teachers.

10. BROTHERS Teo Shiyi + Teo Tse Hsiang = President’s Scholars

Teo Shiyi was one of the four President’s Scholars in 2002. His elder brother Tse Hsiang was awarded the prestigious award in 1998. His mother, Teo Po Chu, was a director with the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore.

11. KO KHENG HWA + Daughter = President’s Scholars

Ko Kheng Hwa is a former President’s Scholar and former Director at Singapore Economic Development Board. His daughter, Stephanie Ko Qian Wen, received the president’s scholarship in 2007.

The Public Service Commission, which awards the scholarship, said Stephanie — from Hwa Chong Institution — is the first recipient to have a President’s Scholar as a parent.

13. SERGIUS WAT ZHIWEN + Brother = Scholars

Sergius Wat is a President’s Scholar and Singapore Police Force scholar. His older brother is a Singapore Armed Forces scholar.

12. SIM ANN + SIBLINGS = Scholars


Article on Sim Ann’s “brainy” scholar family. Source: ST, 22 July 1998

According to a forum post, Sim Ann’s sister, Sim Min, was awarded a Monetary Authority of Singapore scholarship, while her brother Sim Kai was a President’s Scholar.

The above image from ST and Hwa Chong Institution’s President’s Scholars page lists Sim Ann and Sim Kai as recipients.

PM Lee Hsien Loong has known Sim Ann’s mother for 30 years.

A forum post has some details on Sim Ann’s grandfather being executed in the People’s Republic of China for treason. Will update this section if there’s more info on this in future.

The archive is still available in the China national archive.

Now Sim Ann, his granddaughter, is selling out Singaporeans — it should not be a surprise as it seems treason runs in their family blood line.

Sim Ann’s sister is Sim Min, 34, who was awarded a Monetary Authority of Singapore scholarship. Her brother Sim Kai, 31, is also a President’s Scholar.

Daughter of executed Prisoner PRC ID number (XD4429372J) – Choo Lian Liang
Father – Sim Hock Kee

This is a family of nation betrayers.

Source: Helium

Former Minister of State for Education, Sim Ann, has avoided national issues, the problem of foreign scholarships, and the low intake of local graduates in Singapore universities.

14. WALTER WOON’s Twin Sons = Scholars


Walter Woon and sons. Source: NUS

Alexander Joseph Woon Wei-Ming, the younger twin by 10 minutes, is a President’s Scholar. His fraternal twin brother Adrian Gerard Woon Wei-Xin is a PSC scholar. Their father is former Attorney-General Walter Woon, and their mother, Mrs Janis Woon, is a deputy registrar with the Family Court.

15. HENG SWEE KEAT + Wife = Scholars

Heng Swee Keat was a Singapore Police Force overseas scholar. His wife, Chang Hwee Nee, was a President’s Scholar. Chang is Deputy Secretary (Planning) at the Ministry of National Development.

16. DESMOND CHOO = Scholar

Desmond Choo, PAP Candidate for Tampines GRC (2015), was awarded the SPF Overseas Merit Scholarship in 1997 to study Economics at the University of Chicago.

His uncle is Choo Wee Khaing, a former MP who was charged with 3 counts of corruption in 2011.

17. YONG PUNG HOW’s Daughter = Scholar


Newly installed Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong (L) takes his oath of office before Chief Justice Yong Pung How (R) and witnessed by Singaporean President S.R Nathan (C) at the Istana presidential palace in Singapore, 12 August 2004. AFP PHOTO/ROSLAN RAHMAN

Yong Ying-I is the daughter of former Chief Justice Yong Pung How, a close friend of LKY.

Yong Ying-I was an Overseas Merit Scholar.

18. LEE YOCK SUAN + Son = Scholars

Lee Yock Suan served in the PAP Cabinet from 1987 to 2004, and was a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1980 to 2006. He was a President’s Scholar.

His son, Desmond Lee Ti-Seng, was elected to Parliament in 2011 as a PAP MP for the Jurong Group Representation Constituency and was made a Minister of State in 2013. Desmond was a Legal Service Commission Scholarship recipient.

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Former Ministry of Education (MOE) scholar Jonathan Wong Wai Keong was sentenced to five years’ jail in 2012.

Wong was convicted for possession of child pornography in Britain in 2010.

Despite being caught in England for possessing child pornography, local media reported that Jonathan Wong taught in a secondary school after he returned to Singapore.


Former Central Narcotics Bureau (CNB) director Ng Boon Gay was charged in 2012 with four counts of sex-related corruption.


Cecilia Sue and Ng Boon Gay, 2013.

Ng was accused of corruptly obtaining sexual gratification from a female IT executive, Cecilia Sue Siew Nang, by assisting to further the business interests of her then employers Oracle Corporation Singapore and Hitachi Data Systems in dealings with CNB.

Ng recounted that there were at least 20-30 times he and Cecelia Sue were sexually intimate during their three-year relationship.

Ng was a PSC scholarship and Singapore Police Force Postgraduate Scholarship recipient.

A netizen comments:

The most worrying part to me [with Ng Boon Gay being acquitted in 2014] is that Shanmugam is setting a precedent now, by saying that even though there is plainly a conflict of interest, there is no corruption. 

Source: Sam’s Alfresco



Alvin Tan and Vivian Lee.

Alvin Tan was an Asean scholar and had been on “leave of absence” from his classes for almost a year when he started uploading pornographic pictures and videos of himself and his girlfriend Vivian Lee on a blog titled “Sumptuous Erotica.”

An estimate shows that it may have cost the Singapore go­­­vernment — the benefactor of the Asean scholarship programme — at least RM275,000 (S$110,000) to fund all of Tan’s seven years of study in the city state.

The highly prestigious scholarship is awarded to only 170 undergraduates from nine Asean countries annually. It covers tuition fees, accommodation and also provides an allowance for the recipients.

Source: AsiaOne


Teacher and former grassroots leader Chua Ren Cheng was a Head of Department in charge of selecting MOE scholars at the Ministry of Education. He is a former MOE scholar.


Chua Ren Cheng leaving the court, 2012. Source: AsiaOne

In 2012, he “confessed he was a sinner” and was charged for having commercial sex with an underage prostitute.



“Get out of my elite uncaring face.” — Wee Shu Min, 2006

Wee Shu Min, a daughter of MP Wee Siew Kim, is notorious for deriding a Singaporean blogger for his views on the anxieties of Singapore workers. Miss Wee was on RJC’s Humanities Scholarship Programme.

In dismissing the blogger’s views in 2006, she wrote:

“Derek, Derek, Derek darling, how can you expect to have an iron rice bowl or a solid future if you cannot spell?

“There’s no point in lambasting the Government for making our society one that is, I quote, ‘far too survival of the fittest. . .’ If uncertainty of success offends you so much, you will certainly be poor and miserable.”

[She concluded by telling the blogger] to “get out of my elite uncaring face.”


Eng Kai Er is an A*Star scientist who took up two scholarships.

She was fined $2,000 for walking naked through Holland Village with Swedish exchange student Jan Philip.

In 2014, she criticised her scholarship’s bond in a blog post and set up a “No Star Arts Grant” in protest, pledging to give $1,000 a month from her salary to support arts projects for a year.


Ouyang Xiangyu is originally from China. She was expected to complete her A*Star National Science Scholarship PhD studies by 2018 and return to Singapore to complete her bond.


Ouyang Xiangyu, who was listed as a scholar studying at California’s Stanford University. Image: Examiner

In 2015, she was arrested and charged with poisoning her research classmates at Stanford University with a potent chemical that causes burning sensations in the mouth and throat.


In 2014, former Straits Times journalist and SPH scholar Eisen Teo was sentenced to 1.5 years in jail for two charges of having sex and oral sex with an underage girl.

According to the Statement of Facts, presented in court by Deputy Public Prosecutor Amanda Chong, Teo first took special interest in the teenage girl when he learned from reading her blog that she was “clinically depressed, suffering from insomnia and was being bullied in school.”

Comments by netizens:

1) Why did the judge give [Eisen Teo] such a light sentence?? He is a scholar, shame on him to prey on young girls. He planned his move, told lies, to take advantage of her. A scholar with low morals and integrity. Hope the girl is on the road to recovery. I hope his wife divorces him. Fancy his wife baking in the kitchen and he is so bold to have sex with another girl in the room.
(– Mavis Teo)

2) Most scholars produced in the Singapore system are like this: narcissistic and incapable of human understanding.
(– nimal)

Source: Yahoo


Ong Teck Chin is a Rhodes scholar and former ACS(I) principal. He resigned after an investigating panel stated he had “behaved inappropriately towards a male teacher.”

ACS’s stated aim is to have every student be ‘A Scholar, an Officer and a Gentleman.’

Apparently a biology teacher in his 30’s contacted The Straits Times and alleged the principal had “behaved inappropriately” towards him. 

Ong had reduced his teaching duties and created a new position as his de facto personal aide, jetting off together on overseas trips to recruit foreign scholars. Yes, the foreigners competing with your ward for a place in the school are proactively sought and groomed by the principal. With the blessings of MOE. Paid out of your income taxes.

Source: Singapore Desk


Lim Hwee Hua, a PSC Overseas Merit Scholarship holder, was Singapore’s first female Minister and Second Minister for Finance and Transport in 2009.

Before she was sworn in as a Cabinet Minister, Lim was Temasek Holdings’ managing director of strategic relations. She quit politics in 2011.

From John Harding’s website [John Harding was the former Deputy Assistant Commissioner for Singapore’s Inland Revenue Department (IRAS)]:


Lim Hwee Hwa: Former Minister and current director at Tembusu Partners.

Here is the BIG CONNECTION with the Singapore Government that is making it all happen. Andy Lim’s wife is Lim Hwee Hua (former minister). Lim Hwee Hua was making nearly four times as much as President Obama, but this is not enough for the crooked lady. She has set up her husband, Andy, to run a scam investment company, where, as an investor, you can get residence in Singapore.




Ex-SAF scholar gets jail for $500,000 bribe offer. Source: Straits Times, 16 April 2005

Eng Heng Chiaw was a Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) scholar.

Eng was accused of making a S$500,000 bribe offer to an executive of Singapore’s Defence Science and Technology Agency, Sin Boon Wah, in exchange for information on tender bids in a defence ministry contract for the naval helicopters.

He was subsequently convicted and sentenced to 56 days imprisonment on 15 Apr 2005.

12. SUN XU

Sun Xu was an NUS PRC scholar. Each NUS undergraduate scholarship, which covers school fees and accommodation, is worth between $18,000 and $25,000 annually.

Sun was fined $3,000 for making “improper, insensitive and disrespectful” remarks.


“More dogs than humans in Singapore.” — Sun Xu | Image from Stomp SG

He had written: “The most annoying thing in Singapore are those ‘uncles’ who stare at you, or complain endlessly when you accidentally brush past them. . .[there are] more dogs than humans in Singapore.”

Source: AsiaOne


Chan Wei Kiat was a captain with the Republic of Singapore Navy (RSN) and an RSN scholar.

In 2012, he was sentenced to 11 weeks’ jail for having paid sex with an underage prostitute.


Peter Lim was the Commissioner of the Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) and a former Public Service Commission overseas scholarship recipient.

In 2013, Lim was convicted for corruptly obtaining sexual gratification from a female employee of Nimrod in exchange for furthering the company’s business interests with the SCDF.

The judge noted that as the highest-ranked officer of SCDF, Lim was expected to lead by example and “displayed unimpeachable conduct,” adding that his actions brought “embarrassment to the public service” and loss of reputation to the SCDF.

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PART 3: FOREIGN-BORN SCHOLARS in Government or Civil Service



Khaw Boon Wan, a Colombo Plan Scholar (Batch 1973), addressing fellow alumni at Jurong Country Club. Source: FB

MP and PAP Chairman Khaw Boon Wan was born on 8 December 1952 in Penang, Malaysia. He studied in the University of Newcastle, Australia under the Singapore Government Colombo Plan Scholarship.

In 2002, Khaw Boon Wan was said to live by the principle of a Chinese Buddhist saying:

“Be always mindful of those who have brought you benefits, and remember to reciprocrate.”

It seems that netizens think otherwise of Mr. Khaw.


Google Screenshot: Khaw Boon Wan described by netizens as a “fake Buddhist.”


Ipoh-born Tan Zhongshan was awarded an Asean scholarship by Singapore’s Ministry of Education after completing his A-Levels at Temasek Junior College. After his studies at Cambridge University, he returned to Singapore to join its Legal Service commission.


State Counsel / DPP: TAN Zhongshan

As of Aug 2015, Tan Zhongshan is a State Counsel / DPP in the Financial and Technology Crime Division of the Attorney-General’s Chambers.

The Singapore Legal Service is the collective body of lawyers (Legal Service Officers) who serve in the courts, the Attorney-General’s Chambers, and the legal departments of various government ministries and statutory boards in Singapore. It controls the appointment, dismissal, and disciplinary action of members of the Service.


Former RJC student Liu Chen moved to Singapore from Shandong, China, in 1997 with her mother and father. She became a Singapore citizen in 2005 and received a President’s Scholarship to study economics at the University of Chicago.

At the time of this posting, Liu Chen is Head of the Sectoral Manpower Unit, Manpower Policy and Planning Division at the Ministry of Manpower (LinkedIn and



Maung Thet Naing Win (centre), receiving the SAF Overseas Scholarship at a ceremony. ST PHOTO: ALPHONSUS CHERN

Myanmar-born Maung Thet Naing Win was the recipient of the prestigious SAF Overseas Scholarship (Safos) in 2013. He became a new citizen in 2008.

The scholarship is given to only a handful of top students each year. Notable past recipients include Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, DPM and Home Affairs Minister Teo Chee Hean, and Transport Minister Lui Tuck Yew.

SAFOS scholars are groomed for the highest levels of command and management in the SAF and beyond.

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If you go to the A*Star web site, plenty of the scholars are foreign-born — India, China, Vietnam, Malaysia.

This is a small selection of foreign-born scholars.

1) Dr. Wei Fengxia (born in Shandong, China / A*Star scholar)

2) Neil Huynh Hoai Nguyen (born in Vietnam / A*Star scholar)

3) Ng Jie Qi (born in Selangor, Malaysia / MOE scholar)

4) Vijay Raj Singh (born in India / NTU scholar)


Xiao Yifei graduation, 15 August 2015. Source: FB

5) Xiao Yifei (born in China / President’s scholar and RJC alumnus; was holding dual citizenship when she got her scholarship)

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These individuals are not scholars — interesting info nonetheless.


danny lim

Danny Lim, 2010. Source: ST

Danny Soo Ee Hock was a former grassroots leader who took upskirt photos of women. He was stripped of a National Day medal given to him in 2010.

MrBrown says:

The odd thing was that Danny Soo was arrested in July 2009 and awarded the PBM in 2010. Guess no one informed the award committee.

Source: MrBrown / CNN



Ex-director allegedly cheated SLA of $11.8m to buy Lamborghini. Source: Stomp Courtroom

Christopher Lim Chai Meng and his superior Koh Seah Wee (a deputy director at the Singapore Land Authority) were convicted in 2010 for their roles in cheating Singapore government agencies of S$12.5 million.

Lim pleaded guilty to 49 counts including money laundering. They allegedly used the money to buy apartments and cars including a S$1.6 million limited-edition Lamborghini Murcielago LP670-4 SV and a Ferrari F430.

Chan Chun Sing: Related?


Based on Cabinet Minister Chan Chun Sing’s logic:

“I am not related to Mr. Lee’s family. . .my surname is Chan and my wife’s surname is Low.”

Thanks to several readers and netizens for contributing to this post.

If anyone has additional info, please contact me to verify the data so that readers can stay informed. Thank you :)


PART 1: PAP Chairman KHAW BOON WAN on Politicians


In 2013, Mr Khaw said that when a person enters politics, there is “no difference between his or her public and private life.” He said the same thing in 2012.


a) “Ascertaining his relationship is important as it also ascertains meritocracy or nepotism.”
(– Alvin Ong)

b) “According to CCS: my surname is Chan, my wife surname is Low, how are we related to Lee? So he wants to say only Lee’s can be related to Lee? Funny…”
(– Nelson Chan)

c) “CCS became full minister in a short span of time without any significant accomplishment. I wonder why.”
(– Bruce Wee)


1. CHAN CHUN SING: “I’m Not Related to Mr. Lee”


Chan Chun Sing at funeral of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. LKY). Source: AsiaOne

In 2011, a netizen posted a screenshot on a forum, which showed Chan Chun Sing standing behind members of Lee Kuan Yew’s family at the funeral of Mr. Lee’s wife, Kwa Geok Choo.

As to whether he is related to LKY, Chan Chun Sing said:

“I was at the funeral because the Army, under my charge then, was assigned the task of honouring the late Madam Kwa with the ceremonial gun carriage procession. . .My surname is Chan and my wife’s surname is Low. I don’t have any close relatives with the surname Lee as far as I know.”

Source: AsiaOne

  • Reader’s Comment: If Chan Chun Sing was at Kwa Geok Choo’s funeral in the “official capacity as the Chief of Army,” technically he should be dressed in formal military attire. Even then, he should be with other guests or military personnel. 

State-controlled newspaper, The Straits Times, mentioned that Chan Chun Sing’s parents are divorced (in an article dated 8 March 1988).

This ST article (20 August 1988) mentions Chan Chun Sing’s mother’s and sister’s names:

  • Mother: Kwong Kait Fong
  • Sister: Chan Siew Yin

His father’s name has not been mentioned.

The above two images are most likely of Chan Chun Sing’s wife, whose surname is Low. Her first name has not been mentioned.


Monica Lee Kim Mon, who married a Chan, is the sister of Lee Kuan Yew. Her spouse was George Chan Chor Cheung, son of Chan Wing from Kuala Lumpur.

Chan Wing made his fortune in 1897 at age 24 with the opening of Hong Fatt Tin Mine. He had more than 20 children and was the richest person in Kuala Lumpur up to 1941. Chan Wing and 15 family members studied in Cambridge University (LKY’s alma mater). He had residences in Hong Kong, Bangkok and Singapore. He passed away in 1947.


George Chan and Monica Lee in an LKY Lunar New Year family photo. Source: Peranakan Association Magazine Issue 1, 2015

George Chan Chor Chueng was a designer involved in the building of Jurong Bird Park [Kwa Soon Bee (brother of Mrs. LKY / Kwa Geok Choo) used to be the Chairman of Jurong Bird Park].

George Chan Chor Cheung passed away in October 2012. He is said by family members to have “never said a bad word about anyone.”


Nassim Jade Purchases. Image from

P.S. Chan Chee Chiu is a son of George Chan Chor Cheung. Monica Lee Kim Mon purchased a unit with Chee Chiu in the Nassim Jade scandal.

  • Reader Tip: The marriage record of George Chan Chor Cheung and Monica Lee Kim Mon can be retrieved from the Singapore Registry of Marriages for the month of October 1951.


Ho Ching’s mother’s name is Chan Chiew Ping. She was from Taiping, Malaysia.

4. CHAN SIBLINGS + Mary SEET-CHENG (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)


Alan Chan and sister, Chan Heng Chee. Source: SG Tatler

Alan Chan Heng Loon, Public Service Commission (PSC) Member and former principal private secretary to Lee Kuan Yew, has two “illustrious siblings“: Professor Chan Heng Chee and Chan Heng Wing.

Alan Chan was Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Chan Heng Chee is Ambassador-at-Large for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Chan Heng Wing is a senior advisor in Singapore’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Mary Seet-Cheng is a Senior Specialist Adviser at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. She is married to Leonard Cheng Tye Loke, and has the same first and last name as Lee Kuan Yew’s aunt (Mary Seet nee Chua Swee Neo).

There is a “Leonard Cheng Tye Loke” listed in ICIJ’s Offshore Banking database.

4. SEET LI LIN and JHO LOW from 1MDB


Seet Li Lin partying with Leonardo DiCaprio in Las Vegas and LA. Source: Sarawak Report / FB

  • Reader Tip: Please note this important fact. LKY’s mother’s sister married a SEET whose family has many siblings. One of them, SEET LI LIN, has become NOTORIOUS because he is the right hand man of Malaysia’s Jho Low and the 1MDB Scandal. This has appeared even in the US media. Seet is the son of one of the siblings related to Arthur Seet Keong Hoe (son of Seet Cheng Kang, who married Lee Kuan Yew’s aunt).

Seet Li Lin is a close colleague of Jho Low, both of whom are involved with the 1MDB scandal.

It is interesting that this “Seet Li Lin” has not been mentioned in local media such as The Straits Times.

From Seet Li Lin’s Facebook:


The PAP Manifesto reminds me of my best pieces of work in college: loads of nice pics, big on fluff, a light touch on content, says a lot yet very little, somewhat convincing but actually confusing. Most important of all, we always get away with it by gaming the system.

Seet Li Lin, 21 April 2011

UPDATE (24 Oct 2018): According to MSN, “Seet Li Lin, said to be a Singaporean from media reports, is living in Hong Kong and is connected to a Shanghai consulting firm owned by one of 37-year-old Low’s companies.”

UPDATE (7 Sept 2015): According to Sarawak Report, Jho Low’s father, Larry Low Hock Peng, is on the list of frozen Swiss bank accounts.


Larry Low Hock Peng, father of Jho Low. Source: Sarawak Report

A quick summary of names in Jho Low’s family:

  • Grandfather = Low Meng Tak
  • Father = Low Hock Peng, Larry
  • Son #1 = Jho Low
  • Son #2 = Szen Low

5. NG SIBLINGS (Parents and Spouses)

Ng Chee Khern was Chief of Air Force from 2006 – 2009. Ng Chee Peng was Chief of Navy from 2011 – 2014, and was appointed the CEO of CPF in Jan 2015. Former defence chief, Ng Chee Meng, has been touted as a potential office-bearer.


Ng Brothers | Image by Roy Ngerng

Ng Chee Peng’s wife is Valerie Low Yin Lee, who shares the same surname as the wife of Chan Chun Sing. Ng Chee Meng’s wife is Datin Michelle Lim Bee Leng. Ng Chee Khern’s wife is Elaine Ng, CEO of National Library Board.

Ng Ban Hin and Lee Hang Foe are the parents of the Ng siblings. A photo of them is available on Page 9 in this PDF document.


Ng Ban Hin (Father) | Source: NLB


Lee Hang Hoe (Mother) | Source: NLB


Prof. Ivy Lim Swee Lian, CEO of Singhealth, is married to Minister for Defence, Ng Eng Hen.

Ivy Lim Swee Lian has the same first name and last name as Ivy Lim Seok Cheng, sister-in-law of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. Lee Kuan Yew). Ivy Lim Seok Cheng’s father was Lim Chong Pang, whose father-in-law was Lee Choon Guan.

Lee Choon Guan co-founded the Chinese Commercial Bank in 1912. In 1932, the Chinese Commercial Bank and the Ho Hong Bank (founded by Lim Peng Siang) merged with the Overseas-Chinese Bank to form the Overseas-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC Bank).

Ng Eng Hen is said to be the nephew of real estate tycoon, Ng Teng Fong (who had 10 siblings).

  • Reader Tip: A forum poster said the Chinese newspapers mentioned Ng Eng Hen as “the nephew” of Ng Teng Fong. Does anyone have a newspaper clipping?

Ng Eng Hen at the wake of Ng Teng Fong.


The late Mr. Ng Teng Fong (founder of Far East Organization) was billed as Singapore’s richest man by Forbes magazine in September 2009.

Robert Ng Chee Siong is the son of Ng Teng Fong. Robert Ng is a board member of Temasek and is married to Yeoh Saw Kheng (楊素瓊), the third daughter of Dr. Yeoh Ghim Seng, the former Speaker of Parliament of Singapore (Source: CapitalProfile PDF).

Ng Teng Fong’s family has close ties to the governments of Singapore, Hong Kong and China (Source: PDF document). The Ngs have also enjoyed a close relationship with Lee Kuan Yew.



Low Yen Ling, 2011

Low Yen Ling, Parliamentary Secretary for the Ministry of Social and Family Development, has refrained from revealing the names of her husband and her father in previous interviews.

Could she be related to the spouses of Chan Chun Sing and Ng Chee Meng?

LKY’s Relations to Opium Trade


Thanks to some netizens for fact-checking, etc.

Verification, excerpts, and additional info below.



1. Kwa Geok Choo’s uncle-in-law is Tan Chin Tuan, whose nephew is Tony Tan.

Kwa Geok Choo’s mother was Wee Yew Neo. Wee Yew Neo’s father was Wee Theam Seng, the oldest Straits Chinese Christian and Manager of Chinese Commercial Bank.

2. Wee Theam Seng had a brother called Wee Theam Tew (a graduate of Raffles Institution and later a solicitor, who went to China in 1904 and served as the secretary of Prince Su, the military governor of Peking and Minister to the Emperor).

3. From Twentieth century impressions of British Malaya: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources:

Wee Theam Tew, one of the leading Chinese legal practitioners of Singapore, comes of a family who have resided in the Straits Settlements for three generations. His grandfather, Mr. Wee Theam Soo, came from China as a literary graduate, and, together with Dr. Lim Boon Keng’s father and Mr. Cheng Hong Lim’s father, to whom reference is made on another page, acquired the first opium farm in the colony.

4. Lee Kuan Yew’s father, Lee Chin Koon,  was a storekeeper and depot manager for the Shell Oil Company. Lee Chin Koon’s father was Lee Hoon Leong. Hoon Leong worked with the Heap Eng Moh shipping line for tycoon Oei Tiong Ham. He rose in Oei’s estimation, until he was afforded power of attorney over the tycoon’s assets in Singapore.

5. Oei Tiong Ham was the wealthiest man of his era in the Dutch East Indies, and he made a fortune as an opium revenue farmer (opium farms were only part of his commercial empire).

Oei’s vast fortune amounted to 200 million guilders at his death and he lived in a large house in Semarang resembling a fairytale palace. There were no less than 40 servants and huge banquets specializing in different cuisines were given.

  • NOTE: The surnames Wee and Oei are part of the Huang Surname Clan (which puts “Wee Theam Soo” and “Oei Tiong Ham” in the same clan).

6. Oei Tiong Ham had 8 official wives who bore him 13 daughters and 13 sons (plus 18 concubines with a total of 42 children). His son, Oei Tjong Tiong, married Lim Chit Geck, the daughter of Lim Nee Soon.

7. Lim Nee Soon was one of the pioneers of rubber planting. His big investments in the pineapple industry won him the nickname “Pineapple King.” He was a generous charitable benefactor with a keen interest in social and community matters, and one of the most influential businessmen of the day.

Lim Nee Soon was a leading member of the Teochew clan association Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan.

On the formation of Huay Kuan association:

. . .The Kongsi’s accounts were kept private by the Seah family, and undisclosed even to other members. In 1929, a rival Teochew faction led by Lim Nee Soon founded a new association known as the Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan (潮州八邑会馆). The Huay Kuan mounted a lawsuit against the Seah family, alleging that the latter monopolised Kongsi affairs.

Lim Nee Soon was also a close friend of Dr Sun Yat Sen.


Special guests MP Mr Teo Ser Luck and Deputy Prime Minister Mr Teo Chee Hean at the Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan Anniversary Dinner.

8. When Lim Nee Soon was eight years old, he was left in the care of his maternal grandfather, Teo Lee.


“Teo Lee is the great-great-grandfather of Teo Chee Hean, DPM of Singapore.” Source: Teo Lee Family

Teo Lee’s descendant is Teo Chee Hean, who is the cousin of Ivy Lim Seok Cheng. Ivy Lim’s spouse is Kwa Soon Chuan, the brother of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. LKY / “The Dragon Lady“).

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Some excerpts on the history of opium trade in the region.

a) Over time, Tan [Seng Poh] rose through the ranks of Singaporean Chinese society to become a Justice of the Peace, an Honorary Magistrate, a Municipal Councillor as well as a wealthy opium farmer.

After 1870, syndicates of Straits Chinese controlling the lucrative opium farms extended their involvement in the trade beyond Singapore to Bangkok, Saigon, and Shanghai.

Source: Asia Research Institute — Transcultural Diaspora: The Straits Chinese in Singapore, 1819-1918 (PDF Download)

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b) One Chinese witness (Mr. Koh Seang Tat) says that he has never known of heard of an opium consumer breaking himself of the habit, and this view is supported by one medical man.
(Appendix 151)

Opium is commonly smoked by the Chinese in this colony, especially by the lower classes, artisans, and coolies.
(Appendix 165)


Singapore, view inside opium den, 1941. Photographer: Harrison Forman.

Opium consumption is considered as a great vice by our Chinese. The habit of opium consumption in many cases reduces the habitués to extreme poverty and eventually to a stealthy and dishonest life.
— Chan-U-Pai, Director of the Po Leung Kuk, Hong Kong (Apendix 204)

Source: First Report of the Royal Commission on Opium, 1894

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c) Coolies were given to opium inhaling to relieve their tired bodies of its soreness and to gambling in an attempt to escape from their misery. The whites and wealthy Chinese employed the coolies mainly because of their willingness to work hard for little money.

Source: Blog to Express

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d) “. . .that most debasing and pernicious drug, opium, in combination with the Chinese secret societies of which spring many of those daring outrages and robberies that disgrace our settlements.”  (Pg-449)

In 1910 in Singapore, the development from opium farming to Opiumregie, like elsewhere, was completed by the opening of a modern opium factory. Once the mechanization of opium production and distribution was a fact, mass addiction could be realized. (Pg-453)

It is well described by Trocki:

“Most important was the expansion of the global market communicated to Singapore through the major trades: opium, capital, and manufactures from India and the West. In addition to redirecting the commodity flows to the West, the shift created a vast demographic eruption. It was as if the current of wealth flowing out of China began to pull with it the Chinese peoples themselves. Singapore came into being as a result of these global forces.”

Opium played in this global shift the most crucial role. Singapore’s opium scene in the 19th-century is, therefore, much more important than only in a local or regional context.

Officially, nearly half of all revenues of the British was earned by opium. It cannot demonstrate how much private or individual British officials, military men or bankers earned. Indirectly, it also suggests how much a very few super-wealthy people (Chinese) pocketed as their share of the opium rents in this century.

Source: History of the Opium Problem: The Assault on the East, ca. 1600 – 1950 (BRILL)

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e) Chan Wing was a man of principle and did not invest in sinful businesses like opium dens, tax-farming and slave trading.

Source: Insider’s Kuala Lumpur (3rd Edn)

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f) In 1879, Banhap, together with Cheang Hong Lim (one of the trio of Singapore opium farmers who made up the “Great Syndicate”) launged a daring attempt to seize control of the entire Asian opium trade.


Cheang Hong Lim 章芳琳 (1841-1893). Source: RL

When Banhap and Cheang Hong Lim acquired the Hong Kong opium farm, it was not simply an attempt to extend their control over yet another colonial port. The Wo Hang and Yan Wo, the two major opium syndicates in Hong Kong, also controlled the coolie trade of Hong Kong. . .the two firms also sold prepared opium to Chinese immigrants. . .The goal of Banhap and Cheang was to take control of this trade in prepared opium which would have been worth about $3.5 to $4 million per year.

They were among the wealthiest men in Asia at the time and were linked to a vast network of kin, business associates, clansmen, and dependents.

Source: Connecting Seas and Connected Ocean Rims (BRILL)

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g) The Singapore opium farmer simply purchased his supplies on the open market in Singapore. He processed the opium into chandu and distributed it to local opium shops for retail consumption by the population of Chinese coolies.

As a group, it is clear that the farmers were among the most influential and “respectable” of Singapore’s Chinese. They were also economic leaders and were deeply involved in the papper and gambier economy of Singapore and the surrounding territories. These plantations were the major employers of the Chinese coolies who were the major consumers of opium. It is also probable [that] the farmers were intimately connected to the Chinese secret societies of Singapore.

Source: The Rise of Singapore’s Great Opium Syndicate, 1840-86 (Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, NUS)


1. This photo album has some Singapore opium photos (uploaded by Julia Di Lorenzo).


2. This chart shows the intermarriages between Straits Chinese Banking Families in Singapore. Done by Roy Ngerng (originally posted on his blog, TheHeartTruths).

Wee Theam Seng (Mrs. LKY’s grandfather + senior OCBC banker on the right side of the opium image) is circled in this image.


3. This post takes a look at the close historical ties between the Singapore government and Burmese military junta.

Burmese Generals, Drug Lords, and the Singapore Government


On the historical links between the Singapore government and “Burmese Generals / Drug Lords.”


Most of Burma’s 50 million people struggle to feed their families on less than $1 a day.

Regional analysts say most of that revenue and money earned on the black market goes straight to the military leaders and the elite that surrounds them.

Ian Holliday, a Burma expert at the University of Hong Kong, says the generals also spend their money in Singapore.


Might one of these luxury villas belong to Senior General Than Shwe? (Image of Sentosa Cove)

“I know they’ve got some property investments. Than Shwe and his family have a luxury villa that they go [to]. I don’t know how much money they put in Singaporean bank accounts. I assume it’s quite a lot,” he said.

Source: VoA (2007)


a) Nine banks have been given provisional licences to operate in Myanmar, of which two are Singaporean — UOB and OCBC.

Source: Jakarta Post (2015)


OCBC: World’s Strongest Bank (in 2012). Source: Bloomberg

b) In early September 2009, the NGO EarthRights International (ERI) revealed that the French and American oil companies Total and Chevron were using two Singapore-based banking corporations (DBS and OCBC) to finance Burma’s Yadana energy project.

This project might have generated huge dividends for the Burmese state and its military associates (around US$5 billion in one decade according to ERI’s report), as well as for Singapore. Singapore’s official bilateral trade with Burma hit US$1.86 billion during the 2009-2010 fiscal year.

Source: Soldiers and Diplomacy in Burma (NUS Press)

c) “[Burma’s] military elite are hiding billions of dollars of the people’s revenue in Singapore while the country needlessly suffers under the lowest social spending in Asia,” said ERI’s Matthew Smith, the report’s main author.

Source: The Independent

d) Jelson Garcia, Asia Program Manager with the Banking Information Center (BIC), said World Bank, ADB and International Monetary Fund (IMF) officials informed him last year that Burma’s government held up to $11 billion in several Singaporean bank accounts.

Source: The Irrawaddy


Stephen Law is the son of Burma’s notorious drug lord Lo Hsing Han, who, at one point, was sentenced to death in Burma for drug trafficking.


Lo Hsing Han or Law Sit Han (1935 – 2013): Burmese drug trafficker and major business tycoon.

a) Lo Hsing Han’s Asia World (managed by son Stephen Law) and the Burmese junta are partners in Singapore’s luxury Traders Hotel. The hotel’s November 1996 opening ceremony was attended by the wanted guy, Lo Hsing Han himself.

According to a high-level US government official familiar with the situation, Law’s wife Cecilia Ng operates an underground banking system, and “is a contact for people in Burma to get their drug money into Singapore, because she has a connection to the government.”

Source: John Harding, SBS: Singapore Sling, and Covert Action Quarterly

b) “If the Singapore Government truly feels drug abuse is a scourge on society, it would not just want to catch and hang these small-time peddlers,” Singapore Democratic Party leader Chee Soon Juan said, pointing out the Singapore government’s hypocrisy.


Chee Soon Juan, SDP

“You would want to go for the big fish and go to what the source is. Press the Government on what it’s doing in Burma to stop this production of opium and heroin.”

Source: Singapore’s Hand in Golden Triangle

c) Is it so difficult to prosecute a drug lord? There is a conspiracy of intellects and governments that feed the public with bullshit that corruptions are extremely difficult to prosecute and to prove.


Money Trail | Image from

Nothing could be further from the truth. It is easy to steal $1 to $2, but to embezzle millions you would leave trails of accountants, private bankers, large amount of bank accounts transactions, etc. Those are the easiest things to track down.

Source: Veritas

d) Remember, you are dealing with a country like Singapore where the brutal military junta leaders of Burma are not only given red carpet welcomes when they visit Singapore, while they brutalize and torture their citizens, orchids in Singapore were even named after them!

thein sein

Singapore Botanic Gardens held an “Orchid Naming Ceremony” for Myanmar’s President Thein Sein, a former general, in 2009

There is a lot of dirty money to be made with Burmese drug money connections. Burmese drug lords need lawyers too. Lee Kuan Yew does business with Burma. Many of them are drug lords.

Contracts for drug money transactions have to be drafted, banking agreements have to be entered into and complicated money laundering transactions have to be worked out.

Source: Singapore Dissident (2011)

e) “The Singapore government knows it’s having dinner with the devil, and sharing a very short spoon,” says former solicitor-general Francis Seow.


Francis Seow, former solicitor-general of SG

“And it is a terrible double standard. Drug moneys are being laundered apparently by the same drug lords who supply the heroin for which small-time drug dealers are hanged. We are reaping profits as Burma’s biggest investor, but we’re being paid with blood money.”

Source: The Nation


a) The close political, economic, and military relationship between the two countries facilitates the weaving of millions of narco-dollars into the legitimate world economy.

. . .The Burmese government has kept computers and communication technology away from students and others in opposition to the regime. Yet Singapore has made the best computer technology available to the ruling elite and their business partners [through Singapore Telecom (SingTel)].

Singaporean companies have also helped suppress dissent in Burma by supplying the military with arms to use against its own people.

Source: Covert Action Quarterly

b) A former US assistant secretary of state for the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Robert Gelbard, has said half of Singapore’s investment in Burma has been “tied to the family of narco-trafficker Lo Hsing Han.”


Medical trips to SG. Image of SGH by Thomson Adsett.

Dissident groups say the trade-off for Tay Za’s government business contracts in Burma is to fund junta leaders’ medical trips to Singapore.

Source: Sydney Morning Herald

Singapore has received criticism for its large investment in the military dictatorship of Burma. In 1995, the government of then PM Goh Chok Tong pursued a diplomatic strategy of engaging Burma while securing investment deals for its Soverign Wealth Funds (SWFs), including the GIC’s investment in the Myanmar Fund (Financial Times 1995). The state used its SWFs as a diplomatic tool to open channels into Burma.

Source: Sovereign Wealth Funds (by Christopher Balding)


  • Reader Tip: Take note of the two dates in the paragraphs below.

1) Burma’s Prime Minister Soe Win is being treated at a hospital in Singapore, an official from the Burmese embassy in the city-state said. The official would not give details of Soe Win’s illness, saying only that it was a “serious health matter.”

Source: BBC (21 March 2007)


2) As Sim Tee Hua lay on life support in a Singapore hospital, seven of his relatives knelt crying on the floor before the doctors, begging them not to remove his organs and give him a chance for a miracle recovery.

“The hospital staff were running as they wheeled him out of the back door of the room,” said Sim Chew Hiah, one of his sisters. “They were behaving like robbers.”

The harvesting surgeons had waited for 24 hours, but although his family still clung to hopes that he could recover, Singaporean law assumes all citizens except Muslims are willing organ donors unless they have explicitly opted out.

Source: Telegraph (2 March 2007)



Lee Kuan Yew (Photo: AFP/Files/Roslan Rahman)

From an article on CNN:

This time, the WikiLeaks cable shows Minister Mentor [Lee Kuan Yew] describing the Myanmar (or Burma) leaders as “stupid” and “dense.” He was even quoted as saying that dealing with the regime is like “talking to dead people.”

Source: Mr. Brown / CNN (2010)


As netizens say:

“This is what we call LEEgalised corruption.”


This blog post takes a look at LKY’s family ties to opium trade.