As One United People (Part 1)

singapore_pledge
Standard

Let me preface this with the Singapore Pledge (English version):

“We, the citizens of Singapore, pledge ourselves as one united people, regardless of race, language or religion, to build a democratic society, based on justice and equality, so as to achieve happiness, prosperity and progress for our nation.”

I have listed 10 points here from “Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes,” an article by academic professors Marc Morjé Howard and Philip G. Roessler.

Simplified Version: Part 1 (this post) | Part 2

Excerpts Version: Part 1 | Part 2

Original PDF: Link

Part 1 refers to Singapore’s political situation. Part 2 offers a solution.

* * *

PART 1: Singapore’s Political Situation

1. Singapore is classified as a hegemonic authoritarian regime.

Figure 1: Where Singapore is placed on a table showing “five types” of political regimes.

figure1_disaggregation

2. A breakdown of these 3 words (defined by Google):

i. Hegemonic: Ruling or dominant in a political or social context.

ii. Authoritarian: Favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority, especially that of the government, at the expense of personal freedom.

iii. Regime: A government, especially an authoritarian one.

3. Hegemonic authoritarian regimes do hold regular elections as part of their system of governance, but in addition to widespread violations of political, civil, and human rights, the elections are not actually competitive.

4. Because no other party, except the ruling one, is allowed to effectively compete (i.e. the opposition is completely shut out from access to state-owned media coverage, banned from holding political rallies, or forced into exile or in jail), the dominant candidate or party wins overwhelmingly, leading to a de facto one-party state.

5. Elections in authoritarian regimes occasionally result in a “liberalizing electoral outcome” (LEO), which often leads to a new government that is considerably less authoritarian than its predecessor.

6. LEO’s provide at least a chance for a new beginning, in terms of a country’s political situation.

7. Democracy involves much more than just elections.

8. Robust civil society, effective and independent legislatures and judiciaries, and a civilianized military are just three of the many factors that are necessary for a genuine democracy.

9. “Hybrid regimes” combine democratic procedures with autocratic practices. They are the most widespread political system globally at the start of the twenty-first century.

10. Singapore was classified as having “No Liberalizing Electoral Outcome Electoral Outcome.”

NOTE: Table 1 below lists Singapore under the “No Liberalizing Electoral Outcome Electoral Outcome” section.

table_authoritarianelection

Reference: “Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes,” by Marc Morjé Howard and Philip G. Roessler (2006)

* * *

MORE INFO:

Part 1 refers to the situation. Part 2 offers a solution.

Simplified Version: Part 1 (this post) | Part 2

Excerpts Version: Part 1 | Part 2

Original PDF: Link

Singapore Pledge image at top of post from SG Newspaper.

Advertisements

4 thoughts on “As One United People (Part 1)

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s