PAP Relatives: Former and Current MPs

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Thanks to some readers for contributing this list of names. Links below for verification.

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1. FONG SIP CHEE = Father of ARTHUR FONG

Fong Sip Chee is the father of Arthur Fong.

Major Fong Sip Chee was Minister of State (Culture) in the 1980’s.

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Arthur Fong, NLB.

Arthur Fong stepped down from politics in August 2015; he was the Assistant VP of OCBC bank from 1996-2000, and has been an NLB board member since 2011.

2. HO SEE BENG = Father of HO GEOK CHOO

Ho See Beng is the father of Ho Geok Choo.

Ho See Beng was NTUC’s first president from 1964 to 1966, and described by PM LHL as “the archetypical grassroots MP.”

Ho Geok Choo was elected as a Member of Parliament for the West Coast GRC from 2001 to 2011. A former Vice Chairman of the PAP Women’s Wing, Mdm Ho has close to 30 years of experience in GLCs and the private sector.

3. CHOO WEE KHIANG = Uncle of DESMOND CHOO

Former PAP MP Choo Wee Khiang is the uncle of Desmond Choo Pey Ching, PAP candidate for Tampines GRC.

Choo Wee Khiang was charged with 3 counts of corruption in 2011. A quote by Mr. Choo below.

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“One evening, I drove to Little India and it was pitch dark but not because there was no light, but because there were too many Indians around.”
— Former PAP MP Mr Choo Wee Khiang, in a speech in Parliament in 1992

4. ONG AH HENG = Father of ONG TENG KOON

Ong Ah Heng was the Member of Parliament for Nee Soon Central until 2011. He was appointed a non-executive Director of ComfortDelGro Corporation Limited on 18 February 2003.

Ong Ah Heng is the father of Ong Teng Koon, a commodities trader and MP for Sembawang GRC.

5. LEE YOCK SUAN = Father of DESMOND LEE TI-SENG

Lee Yock Suan is a former cabinet minister and member of Parliament. His son is Desmond Lee Ti-Seng.

6. CYNTHIA PHUA = Sister of DENISE PHUA

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Denise Phua and husband Tay Kiong Hong (right); Denise Phua and younger siblings (left). Source: ST

  • Reader Tip: Mentioned in Chinese newspapers during former elections that Cynthia Phua is the sister of Denise Phua.

7. CHUA SIAN CHIN = Father of CHUA ENG LEONG

Former cabinet minister Chua Sian Chin is the father of Chua Eng Leong.

8. LIM KIM SAN = Uncle of PANG KIM HIN and LIM BOON HENG

Lim Kim San was a former senior cabinet minister and trusted political confidante of Lee Kuan Yew.

Pang Kim Hin is his nephew. A reader says that the Chinese newspapers reported that Lim Boon Heng is a nephew of Lim Kim San as well.

As One United People (Part 1)

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Let me preface this with the Singapore Pledge (English version):

“We, the citizens of Singapore, pledge ourselves as one united people, regardless of race, language or religion, to build a democratic society, based on justice and equality, so as to achieve happiness, prosperity and progress for our nation.”

I have listed 10 points here from “Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes,” an article by academic professors Marc Morjé Howard and Philip G. Roessler.

Simplified Version: Part 1 (this post) | Part 2

Excerpts Version: Part 1 | Part 2

Original PDF: Link

Part 1 refers to Singapore’s political situation. Part 2 offers a solution.

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PART 1: Singapore’s Political Situation

1. Singapore is classified as a hegemonic authoritarian regime.

Figure 1: Where Singapore is placed on a table showing “five types” of political regimes.

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2. A breakdown of these 3 words (defined by Google):

i. Hegemonic: Ruling or dominant in a political or social context.

ii. Authoritarian: Favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority, especially that of the government, at the expense of personal freedom.

iii. Regime: A government, especially an authoritarian one.

3. Hegemonic authoritarian regimes do hold regular elections as part of their system of governance, but in addition to widespread violations of political, civil, and human rights, the elections are not actually competitive.

4. Because no other party, except the ruling one, is allowed to effectively compete (i.e. the opposition is completely shut out from access to state-owned media coverage, banned from holding political rallies, or forced into exile or in jail), the dominant candidate or party wins overwhelmingly, leading to a de facto one-party state.

5. Elections in authoritarian regimes occasionally result in a “liberalizing electoral outcome” (LEO), which often leads to a new government that is considerably less authoritarian than its predecessor.

6. LEO’s provide at least a chance for a new beginning, in terms of a country’s political situation.

7. Democracy involves much more than just elections.

8. Robust civil society, effective and independent legislatures and judiciaries, and a civilianized military are just three of the many factors that are necessary for a genuine democracy.

9. “Hybrid regimes” combine democratic procedures with autocratic practices. They are the most widespread political system globally at the start of the twenty-first century.

10. Singapore was classified as having “No Liberalizing Electoral Outcome Electoral Outcome.”

NOTE: Table 1 below lists Singapore under the “No Liberalizing Electoral Outcome Electoral Outcome” section.

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Reference: “Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes,” by Marc Morjé Howard and Philip G. Roessler (2006)

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MORE INFO:

Part 1 refers to the situation. Part 2 offers a solution.

Simplified Version: Part 1 (this post) | Part 2

Excerpts Version: Part 1 | Part 2

Original PDF: Link

Singapore Pledge image at top of post from SG Newspaper.