PAP: Other Relatives


Thanks to some diligent netizens for contributing to this post.

Links for verification and additional info below.



Teo Chee Hean is the father of Teo Eng Siang. Teo Eng Siang received a PSC Overseas Merit Scholarship in 2005 to study International Relations and Philosophy at Brown University (scholarship funded by Singapore taxpayers). Brown University’s tuition fee for 2015-2016 is US$48,272 per annum.


According to John Harding’s website, Mah Bow Tan is the father of Warren Mah (who received an MAS scholarship to study overseas; funded by Singapore taxpayers).


Juthika Ramanathan, CEO of the Supreme Court, is the daughter of former president S. R. Nathan.

4. YONG YING-I = Daughter of YONG PUNG HOW


Private wake of Lee Kuan Yew at Sri Temasek, Istana on 23 March 2015. Mr Lee’s close friend and former Chief Justice Yong Pung How with his wife and daughter. Source: AsiaOne

Yong Ying-I is the daughter of former Chief Justice Yong Pung How, a close friend of LKY.

5. GRACE FU = Daughter of JAMES FU

Grace Fu, senior minister of state, is the daughter of former press secretary to LKY, James Fu.


Ngiam Siew Ying and Ngiam Shih Chun are relatives of Ngiam Tong Dow.


Prof. Wong Tien Yin, a former President’s Scholar, is the son of former senior minister of state, Dr. Aline Wong.

8. a) CHUA SIAN CHIN = Brother-in-Law of WONG YIN HIN

Chua Sian Chin, former Minister of Home Affairs, is the brother-in-law of Wong Lin Ken (Home Affairs Minister from 1970 – 1972). The above images show that Chua Sian Chin married Alice Tan, who is the sister of Lilli Tan. Lilli is the spouse of Wong Lin Ken.

Photos of Tan sisters from National Archives of Singapore (Alice Tan and Lilli Tan).



Wong Lin Ken, former Minister for Home Affairs.

Wong Lin Ken was found to have committed suicide in 1983.

1) Francis Seow opines this reflected the level of trust and faith that Lee Kuan Yew had in Rajaratnam instead of Jek Yuen Thong and Home Affairs’ Dr. Wong Lin Ken. Wong subsequently returned to academia after being told by Lee senior that he did not ‘want a liberal’ (Straits Times, 5 May 1971) in his cabinet, and later committed suicide.

Source: PBWorks: SG Press and The Media Enthralled

2) By the 1968 elections, LKY’s efforts to assemble a group of successors had begun — bright PhD holders such as Chiang Hai Ding and Wong Lin Ken were fielded, but he quickly learnt that political leadership required “other qualities besides a disciplined mind able to marshal facts and figures.”

Source: Today Online

9. FOO MEE HAR = Descendant of CHIA HOOD THEAM

MP Foo Mee Har held a number of senior positions in Standard Chartered Bank.


Foo Mee Har, born in Malaysia. Source: Today Paper

She is one of several MP’s who were not born in Singapore.

Foo Mee Har’s mother-in-law is Madam Eleanor Tan Kok Neo. In a 2014 article, Madam Tan, then 79, had paid her stepdaughter (Wendy Chan) $1 million “not to say or write anything about her or her family, who are descendants of Mr Chia Hood Theam, a prominent Peranakan and bank agent born in the mid-19th century.” Wendy Chan and her brother were born out of wedlock after Dr Chan, who was married to Madam Tan, had an affair.

As a netizen says:

“Rich people’s problems.”

10. CHEW SIBLINGS = Grandchildren of TAN CHIN TUAN (uncle of TONY TAN whose son-in-law = SIMON CHESTERMAN)


Chew Siblings: Grandchildren of Tan Chin Tuan.

Chew Gek Khim, Chew Kwee San and Chew Gek Hiang are the grandchildren of Tan Chin Tuan (uncle of President Tony Tan). They are thus relatives of Kwa Geok Choo through Tan Chin Tuan (their mother is Dr. Tan Kheng Lian, daughter of Tan Chin Tuan and cousin of Kwa Geok Choo).

Chew Kwee San is an Advocate and Solicitor of the Supreme Court in Singapore. Chew Gek Khim sits on the board of Singapore Exchange Limited and is a Member of the SSO Council and Board of Governors of the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. Chew Gek Hiang serves on the advisory panel of the GST Review Board.

Tony Tan became the 9th NUS chancellor in late 2011; Simon Chesterman was installed as NUS law dean in early 2012. Chesterman is also Editor of the Asian Journal of International Law and Secretary-General of the Asian Society of International Law. Tony Tan is the current NUS chancellor as of June 2015.

Simon Chesterman is married to Patricia Tan, daughter of Tony Tan.

11. YEOH GHIM SENG = Father-in-Law of ROBERT NG (son of property tycoon NG TENG FONG)

Yeoh Ghim Seng, former Speaker of the Parliament, had 5 daughters. One of them, Yeoh Saw Kheng, is the spouse of Robert Ng, who is the son of Far East Organization founder Ng Teng Fong.

Ng Teng Fong’s family has close ties to the governments of Singapore, Hong Kong and China (Source: PDF document). The Ngs have enjoyed a close relationship with Lee Kuan Yew.

PAP: Royal Bloodline (Combined Family Tree)


Verification and some excerpts on “the aristocracy” below.

Presented in 4 sections:

1. Combined PAP Family Tree (image)
2. Excerpts on Meritocracy / Aristocracy
3. Verification (text + links)
4. Additional Info

P.S. Thanks to some hardworking netizens for help with research and fact-checking. Above image of LKY from Facebook.



1. “Meritocracy means a country picks its best citizens, not the relatives of the ruling class, to run a country.”
— Kishore Mahbubani, Dean of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (2015)

2. “Without a natural aristocracy. . .society will lose out.”
— Lee Hsien Loong, 2015

tan chin tuan

Group photo of founding of OCBC. FRONT ROW: Tan Chin Tuan (Tony Tan’s uncle) is fourth from left. BACK ROW: Kwa Siew Tee (Mrs. LKY’s father) is third from left. Source: NAS / Veritas

3. OCBC has been described as a “clan bank” with “familial ties between the bank’s directors and close networking.”
— The Star, 2011

4. “It is all but impossible to distinguish between legitimate and ill-gotten gains because there is no public disclosure of the wealth of officials and their relatives. Conflict-of-interest laws are weak or nonexistent. The business dealings of the political elite are heavily censored in the state-controlled news media.”
— ‘Princelings’ in China (NYT)

5. The networks of hundreds of GLCs that are popularly referred to as Singapore Inc are not just vehicles for the conduct of business. Collectively they provide an extensive and almost inescapable vehicle of elite patronage and power.


Chan Heng Chee (left), former political critic, and Lee Kuan Yew during LKY’s visit to the U.S. in 2000.

There have been scholars who have been critical of the government in their youth, but by the time they have arrived in government, they have always transformed themselves into models of elite solidarity.
— Michael Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore

6. It makes it a lot easier to understand Singapore if you [begin] from the premise that it is a Chinese family business, complete with a patriarch, an eldest son, guanxi networks and questions of cross-generational continuity.
— Michael Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore

7. Guanxi refers to the benefits gained from social connections and usually extends from extended family, school friends, workmates and members of common clubs or organizations. It is customary for Chinese people to cultivate an intricate web of guanxi relationships, which may expand in a huge number of directions, and includes lifelong relationships. The more you ask of someone the more you owe them. Guanxi can perpetuate a never-ending cycle of favors.
— Wikipedia (Guanxi)


Chua Kim Teng (LKY’s maternal grandfather – centre row, 4th from left), Leong Ah Soon (centre row, 4th from right) Lee Kuan Yew’s mother Chua Jim Neo (centre row, 2nd from left), and her brother Chua Kheng Hoe (last row, second from left) was also related by marriage to Lee family (Family Photo from Lee Suan Yew)

8. “Family ties develop and strengthen over generations through family, clan, or tribal group activities and ceremonies. This family network can be a source of prestige as well as socioeconomic and political sucess.”
— Encyclopedia of Social Networks (SAGE)

9. “Fundamental change to the political regime will have to await Lee Kuan Yew’s demise. . .any legitimacy that Lee has secured through his personal authority will likely pass with him.”
— Cho Oon Khong, 1995

10. “It may not be imperative for us to know the family history of all the faces that appear in Singapore Tatler. But Singaporeans should at least know more about the roots of those who hold this country’s destiny in their hands.”
— Tan Sai Siong (Straits Times)


11. “Cling to people you can trust — your family, your clan.”
— Lee Kuan Yew, 1984 National Day Rally (video below)


+ + +


1. Verification for the right side of the image can be found on this post, re: how Tony Tan is related to PM Lee Hsien Loong.

2. Wee Kim Wee’s mother was Chua Hay Luan. Chua Hay Luan is the sister of Chua Kim Teng (father of Chua Jim Neo, LKY’s mother). Mr. Wee addressed Chua Jim Neo as “cousin” in the preface of a book published in the mid-70s. The preface was mysteriously removed from later publications.

3. This post has some text and links on how Teo Chee Hean is related to PM LHL.

In a 2006 Sunday Times article, Teo Chee Hean paid tribute to Tan Chin Tuan by saying:

‘I remember [TAN Chin Tuan] because he was very kind to my father (Teo Cheng Guan). After the war, he gave my father a job at OCBC and my father worked with him for many years. He was always very kind to our family.’


Newspaper article about Teo Chee Hean’s great-granduncle.

  • READER TIP: Newspaper article about Teo Chee Hean’s family (mostly about Teo Eng Hock, Teo Chee Hean’s great-granduncle). The man on the right is Teo Chee Hean’s father. The woman in the centre with black cheongsam is Teo Chee Hean’s mother (Mrs. Teo Cheng Guan, or Madam TAN Suang). 张志贤 is Teo Chee Hean’s Chinese name.

4. On Teo Chee Hean’s link to Ivy Lim (sister-in-law of Kwa Geok Choo / Mrs. LKY): Teo Chee Hean’s father and Lim Chong Pang are the same generation. Teo Chee Hean and Ivy Lim Seok Cheng (Lim Chong Pang’s daughter) are the same generation. So they would address each other as 表姐, 表弟. In English, “cousin.” The link is through Teo Chee Hean’s great grand aunt (Teo Choon Lian) and Ivy Lim’s great grandfather (Lim Peng Nguan; spouse of Teo Choon Lian).

5. On Lim Kim San: Lim Chong Pang’s father was Lim Nee Soon. Lim Nee Soon’s daughter, Lim Mui Gek, married Tan Huck Khong. Tan Huck Khong’s uncle is Tan Chong Teck. Tan Chong Teck’s grandson is Pang Kim Hin — Tan Chong Teck’s eldest daughter, Tan Poey Quee, married Pang Leong Chwee and is the mother of Pang Kim Hin (married to Chew Kheng Imm). Pang Leong Chwee’s sister, Pang Gek Kim, is the wife of Lim Kim San. Thus Lim Kim San is the uncle of Pang Kim Hin.

6. On Goh Keng Swee: Lim Chong Pang’s father-in-law was Lee Choon Guan. Lee Choon Guan’s father-in-law was Tan Keong Saik. Tan Keong Siak’s father’s brother had a son named Tan Kiong / Keong Keng, who had a daughter called Tan Siok Kim. Tan Siok Kim was married to Chew Cheng Yong. Chew Cheng Yong’s brother-in-law was Goh Leng Inn, father of Goh Keng Swee.

* Tip: Many of the names mentioned above were the leading pioneers in banking and trading sectors during The Straits Settlements. They also held many leading positions in the municipal commission where they worked closely with the British colonial government in the running of domestics affairs of Singapore.

Hence, they all played influential roles in the politics and economy during that time.

As such, readers are encouraged to do their own reading on these pioneers.

+ + +


1. According to several netizens, this is the “main branch” of Singapore’s Royal Bloodline.


2. This chart shows the intermarriages between Straits Chinese Banking Families in Singapore. Done by Roy Ngerng (originally posted on his blog, TheHeartTruths).


3. A Feudalism chart showing the 99%’s place in society (image by Amendment Gazette).


4. Collection of “elitism” quotes by PAP Ministers.

Kwa: Family Tree (Government Positions)


A Kwa family tree, showing some family members and their titles / positions. Links with verification and additional info below.

Thanks to several diligent netizens for contributing to this post.



Kwa Geok Choo (“Mrs. LKY”) was married to Lee Kuan Yew for 63 years.

Kwa was the co-founder of Lee and Lee law firm. She participated in drafting the PAP party’s constitution and gave a speech on radio urging women to vote for the PAP in the upcoming elections.

ANTI-CLOCKWISE DIRECTION (from top left corner):

1. Kwa Kim Li is a niece of Kwa Geok Choo. Kwa Kim Li is a director at Mapletree Commercial Trust (a GLC and unit of Singapore sovereign wealth fund Temasek Holdings Pte. Ltd.’s property arm, Mapletree Investments).

2. Kwa Chong Seng, Public Service Commission (PSC) Member and former Temasek Holdings chairman, is a nephew of Kwa Geok Choo.

According to Wikipedia, Singapore’s Constitution, and PSC’s 2012 Annual Report:

The Public Service Commission (PSC) is constituted under Part IX of the Constitution of Singapore and its constitutional role is to appoint, confirm, promote, transfer, dismiss and exercise disciplinary control over public officers in Singapore.

The PSC also retains two key non-constitutional roles. It considers the suitability of candidates for appointment as Chief Executive Officers of Statutory Boards; it is also responsible for the planning and administration of scholarships provided by the Government of Singapore.

3. Kwa Chong Guan, chairman of the National Archives, is a nephew of Kwa Geok Choo. Read more about his influential titles at the end of this post on the National Heritage Board.

4. Kwa Soon Bee, former Permanent Secretary for Health and Director of Medical Services, is a brother of Kwa Geok Choo.

5. Kwa Soon Chuan was the first local appointed to the Colonial Administration. He is a brother of Kwa Geok Choo.


Kwa Soon Chuan’s titles. Source: ST / NLB, 5 Jan 1977

Kwa Soon Chuan’s spouse is Ivy Lim Seok Cheng (daughter of Lim Chong Pang). Ivy Lim’s link to Teo Chee Hean is through Teo Chee Hean’s great grand aunt (Teo Choon Lian), who was married to Ivy Lim’s great grandfather (Lim Peng Nguan; spouse of Teo Choon Lian). So Ivy Lim and Teo Chee Hean would address each other as 表姐, 表弟. In English, “cousin.”

6. Yong Nyuk Lin, Minister for Education in PAP’s first cabinet, is a brother-in-law of Kwa Geok Choo. His spouse is Kwa Geok Lan, elder sister of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. LKY).

7. Earnest Lau was the principal of ACS. His mother was Madam Yong Soong Moy, Headmistress of Geylang Methodist Girls’ School (1930s), and his father was Reverend Edward Sing Lau (Ee Sing), Pastor of Telok Ayer Chinese Methodist Church (1929-1930), Geylang English Methodist Church (1930-1951) and Straits Chinese Methodist Church (1952-1963). Earnest Lau’s spouse is Kwa Geok Lian, sister of Kwa Geok Choo.

8. According to a couple of thorough online comments, Kwa Chong Teck, Senior Advisor at National Dental Centre Singapore, is the brother of Kwa Chong Seng.


This blog post takes a look at Kwa Geok Choo (the “Dragon Lady”) through the perspective of Peranakan culture.

Author Interview, Katherine Mayfield


Interview #59, with passionate truthteller: Katherine Mayfield!

Describe yourself in 5 words:

Katherine Mayfield

Idealistic, fun-loving, passionate truthteller.

Share a short excerpt and blurb of your work (10-100 words):

The Box of Daughter

“I think about how art and music heal the holes in the human soul that we create with our own dysfunction.…

My lifelong goal is to create a beautiful mosaic of a life from the broken bits of a traumatic childhood, a light-filled stained-glass window fashioned of the shattered shards of the self I’ve excavated.

I wonder: does everyone try to fit the pieces of their lives together as if they’re working on an unfamiliar jigsaw puzzle? Or only those of us who were so disassembled that most of the pieces don’t even match?”

The Box of Daughter, Katherine Mayfield

Share an excerpt of your favorite poet’s work (10-100 words):

“The body never lies.” – Alice Miller

Comment on the writing versus publication process, in your experience:

For me, writing is a passionate terror, a terrible passion, a burning need to express myself and the ideas that rush through me from wherever they originate. Some days, I love it more than anything, and other days, I want to tear my hair out in desperation to find the word or phrase that expresses exactly what I feel.

The publication process, on the other hand, is much more logical and orderly — not without frustration, but it’s a more linear process for me than the process of writing, which is somewhat like living in a blender with a meditation room attached.

What is your definition of “good writing”?

Meaning that touches the heart and soul, words that heal, thoughts that inspire.

Please share your #1 tip for poets/writers:

Another line from my memoir, The Box of Daughter: “I often wonder if the alternate meaning of writer’s block is ‘Somebody in your psyche is getting in the way of your being able to express yourself.’ ”

Sometimes we get so wrapped up in listening to the old voices and writing the “right” thing that we think we can’t write anything at all. In my mind, the best cure for writer’s block is writing wildly and madly about anything and everything, especially about whatever you’re feeling.

Your websites/blogs/etc:

I blog on Dysfunctional Families on my website:

* * * * *

Much thanks to Katherine for stopping by! Katherine kindly hosted me for a recent guest post (part of the Teen Guide blog tour). Be sure to check out her memoir, The Box of Daughter — the story of her journey to recover her authentic self after growing up in a very dysfunctional family.

* UPDATE: Katherine’s 2013 QnA and guest post on recovering from being bullied!