PAP and Property


Thanks to netizens + readers for contributing to this post.

Presented in 6 parts:

INTRO: Excerpts on Singapore Property
Part 1: Nassim Jade + NParks + Gardens By The Bay + Corals At Keppel Bay
Part 2: Sim Lian + Far East + MapleTree + GoodWood
Part 3: Suntec REIT + CityDev + Pontiac Land + JTC
Part 4: Sentosa DC + GSH + Marina Bay + CapitaLand
Part 5: Keppel Land + Sentosa Cove + White Group



1) We can infer from their cash-only purchases of condominiums during the “Hotel Properties Scandal” that all of the extended Lee family are probably cash millionaires. . .government connections can be very lucrative in state-run Singapore.

Source: AndyXianWong


Singapore Real Estate. Image from Bloomberg.

2) The government is “the largest landowner in Singapore. . .the Land Acquisition Ordinance of 1955 and its amendment in 1966 were the chief policies that laid the groundwork for [the Singapore government] to acquire land from private holders.

Source: Emerald Group Publishing (2015)

3) CityDev is the third largest landowner in Singapore after the government and the family of Ng Teng Fong.

Source: AsiaWeek (2000)


“Ng Teng Fong tops Singapore rich list.” (2007)

4) Forbes’ list of the 50 richest people in Singapore was dominated by real estate moguls as property emerged as the main source of wealth for 12 tycoons on the list.

Source: Property Guru (2015)

5) Property is the main factor in growing prosperity of two-thirds of names on Forbes top 50.

Source: Urban Land Rent (2015)

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PART 1: Nassim Jade + NParks + Gardens By The Bay + Corals At Keppel Bay


Lee Suan Yew (one of Lee Kuan Yew’s brothers) was a past director of Singapore’s Hotel Properties Ltd. HPL is headed by Malaysian-born tycoon, Ong Beng Seng.


In 1996, Lee Kuan Yew bought a Nassim Jade unit (a condominium project by Hotel Properties) at a discount during the soft launch without HPL (a publicly listed company) seeking permission of its shareholders.

LKY’s relatives who also purchased units at discounts include:

  • Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. LKY);
  • Lee Hsien Loong + Ho Ching (son and daughter-in-law);
  • Pamelia Lee (sister-in-law);
  • Kwa Kim Li (niece);
  • Lee Wei Ling (daughter);
  • Lee Kim Mon (sister);
  • Freddy Lee (brother);
  • Dennis Lee (brother); and
  • Gloria Lee (sister-in-law).

All the purchases amounted to more than $10 million and were carried out without mortgages and loans.

Lai Kew Chai was a Malaysia-born Singaporean judge and the longest-serving member of the Supreme Court Bench, having served for almost 25 years as a Judge. He was a former partner of LKY’s law firm of Lee and Lee and a close friend of LKY and family. He bought a discounted unit at Nassim Jade and was the presiding judge on Tang Liang Hong’s case (Tang Liang Hong was a lawyer and opposition Workers’ Party candidate, who was bankrupted after raising questions about the Lee family’s Nassim Jade purchases).

For more details on the Nassim Jade saga, here are some articles:


Class of 1962 reunion in 2012. Source: ACS Alumni

The above ACS 1962 reunion picture shows that Ong Beng Seng, Managing Director of HPL, was a former classmate or schoolmate of Kwa Chong Seng (nephew of Mrs. LKY).

  • NOTE: Chew Choon Seng (beside Ong Beng Seng in above ACS reunion pic) has been a member of the board of GIC since January 2004. Chew is Chairman of the Singapore Exchange, Chairman at Singapore Tourism Board, and the former CEO of Singapore Airlines.


Christina Ong has been the Managing Director of Club 21 since 2007 (estimated worth of S$150 million). She is a well-known hotelier and fashion retailer and has been Chairman of NParks since 2007.


Christina Ong and Ong Beng Seng. Source: Forbes

Her husband is Ong Beng Seng of Hotel Properties Limited (HPL). NParks manages the Gardens By The Bay project.



Chang Hwee Nee, member on board of directors of Gardens by the Bay (2011+).

Heng Swee Keat is married to Chang Hwee Nee. Mr. Heng was Principal Private Secretary to SM Lee Kuan Yew from 1997 to 2000. Ms. Chang, a President Scholar, is the former Deputy Secretary (Policy) of Ministry of Education and a member of the board of directors of Gardens by the Bay.

The development of Gardens By The Bay came under the scrutiny of the Auditor-General in 2015 for lapses in the control of contract variation works.

The Auditor-General’s Office’s test-checks revealed a general lack of documentation, failure to obtain approval and laxity in control over contract variations by NParks in managing the development of the Gardens By The Bay project, which has an estimated total contract value of S$1.06 billion.

There was no assurance that NParks had not spent more funds than necessary.

Source: CNA (and PDF 2014/2015 report)

Checks by the AGO found that managers of the $1 billion Gardens by the Bay project had awarded over $20 million of contracts through a waiver of competition, without compelling reasons.



“The development comprises 366 luxurious waterfront homes.” ~$10million for a 4-bedroom unit.

Mrs. Koh-Lim Wen Gin, a former Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) chief planner, has been an independent director of Keppel Land since January 2010. She has been a board member of NParks since 2010.

Her daughter, Ms. Koh Lin-Net, was one of the buyers of Keppel Land’s units at its Corals at Keppel Bay project. Koh Lin-Net is the chief executive of the Media Development Authority and prior to that was deputy secretary of trade at the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Ms Koh and her husband Lawrence Low bought a unit at Corals for slightly below $10.1 million.

Mrs. Koh-Lim Wen Gin’s husband is Koh Seow Chuan, retired founder of DP Architects. Under Koh’s leadership, DP Architects has been responsible for many iconic buildings in Singapore, including Suntec City, Paragon, Bugis Junction and Esplanade-Theatres on the Bay.

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PART 2: Sim Lian + Far East + MapleTree + GoodWood


Ong Ye Kung (Sembawang GRC candidate; 2015) is married to Diana Kuik Sin Leng. Mr. Ong was a former top civil servant and Principal Private Secretary to PM Lee Hsien Loong.

Ong’s wife, Diana Kuik Sin Leng, is the executive director of Sim Lian (owned by the Kuik family). Sim Lian has undertaken over S$2 billion worth of contracts, including public projects for the Housing Development Board (HDB), DBSS flats, and other government projects.

Ong Chit Chung (1949 – 2008) was a former MP, parliamentary secretary, and a director at Sim Lian. Associate Professor Sim Loo Lee was a former HDB director and an independent director of Sim Lian.

It is interesting to note that the Government did not consider the potential conflict of interests when it invited a Sim Lian board director to also sit on the board of HDB.

Netizen Melvin Chong says:

Don’t Be Stupid, Singaporeans. This is Detention Barrack Singapore-Style with Damn Bloody Shoddy Standard.”


a) Ng Teng Fong

Robert Ng Chee Siong is the son of Singapore property tycoon and Far East Organization founder, Ng Teng Fong. Robert Ng is a board member of Temasek and is married to Yeoh Saw Kheng (楊素瓊), the third daughter of Dr. Yeoh Ghim Seng, the former Speaker of Parliament of Singapore (Source: CapitalProfile PDF).

Minister for Defence Ng Eng Hen is said to be the nephew of Ng Teng Fong (who had 10 siblings).

  • Reader Tip: A forum poster said the Chinese newspapers mentioned Ng Eng Hen as “the nephew” of Ng Teng Fong. Does anyone have a newspaper clipping?

Ng Eng Hen at the wake of Ng Teng Fong.

One in six houses in Singapore today is built by the Ng family.

Ng Teng Fong’s family has close ties to the governments of Singapore, Hong Kong and China (Source: PDF document). The Ngs have also enjoyed a close relationship with Lee Kuan Yew.

The late Mr. Ng Teng Fong was billed as Singapore’s richest man by Forbes magazine in September 2009.

b) Colleagues

Leong Hong Kee was executive director at Far East Organization from 1993 to 2008 and a member of Singapore’s parliament in Singapore for 32 years until his retirement in 2006.

Heng Chiang Meng served as executive director of Far East Organization from 1996 to 1997, during which time he was also a member of parliament. He resigned from FEO amid allegations of conflict of interest between private and public-sector roles. Heng has been a board director at Keppel Land since 2005.


Kwa Kim Li is the Managing Partner of Lee and Lee law firm. Ms Kwa is a director in Mapletree Commercial Trust. In addition, she sits on the Boards of Sentosa Development Corporation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy and Singapore Chinese Girls’ School.


Singapore’s Mapletree Raises US$1.4 bil for China Real Estate Fund. Source: Mingtiandi, 2013

Mapletree Commercial Trust is a unit of Singapore sovereign wealth fund Temasek Holdings’ property arm, Mapletree Investments. Mapletree is a government-linked company (GLC).

Kwa Kim Li is the niece of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. LKY).



Mavis Khoo-Oei is part of the Khoo clan consisting of 14 heirs of late banker Khoo Teck Puat, founder of Maybank, Malaysia’s most valuable bank (market cap:$23 billion). She is the Chairman of Goodwood Park Hotel. Her husband was Humphrey Oei, who is a grandchild of Oei Tiong Ham. Incidentally, Oei Tiong Ham is a forefather of Teo Chee Hean.

In 1986, the Brunei authorities issued a warrant for Khoo Teck Puat’s arrest on charges of defrauding the bank.

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PART 3: Suntec REIT + CityDev + Pontiac Land + JTC


Chew Gek Khim is a grandchild of Tan Chin Tuan. She is a relative of Kwa Geok Choo through Tan Chin Tuan (her mother is Dr. Tan Kheng Lian, daughter of Tan Chin Tuan and cousin of Kwa Geok Choo).

Chew Gek Khim joined the Board of Directors of Suntec Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) on 21 January 2014 and was appointed Chairman on 17 April 2014.

Edwin Tong is an Allen & Gledhill Partner, who has made headlines as the defense lawyer acting for Pastor Kong Hee in the high-profile City Harvest case. He is a PAP candidate in the Marine Parade GRC in GE2015.


City Harvest at Suntec (2013). Source: CN

Pastor Kong Hee, City Harvest Church founder and co-owner, paid $9.33m for a luxury duplex unit at Sentosa Cove in 2007. Kong and five others are alleged to have misused $50 million of church funds and then falsified church accounts to cover up the misuse. They are accused of funnelling millions from the church’s building fund to pay for the Crossover Project, to boost the music career of Kong’s wife Ho Yeow Sun.

In 2012, City Harvest Church increased its stake in Suntec Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre to 39.2 per cent, from its original 20 per cent in 2010. The church’s executive pastor, Aries Zulkarnain, said “we are co-owners of this property together with Suntec REIT.”


Philip Yeo was formerly the Special Adviser for Economic Development in the Prime Minister’s Office (2007-2011), and former Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Defence for Defence Research, Logistics and Industry (1979-1985). He is a director of CDL and a member of the advisory board at NTU Business School.

Kwek Leng Joo, brother of Kwek Leng Beng, was appointed as a Director of CDL in 1980. He served as the President of Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce & Industry (SCCCI) and is currently an Honorary President of SCCCI.


Kwee Liong Seen is one of the four Kwee brothers who share ownership of Pontiac Land, a major real estate company in Singapore. Kwee Liong Seen is executive director of Pontiac Land and a member of the advisory board at NTU Business School.

The other brothers are Kwee Liong Keng, Singapore’s Non-Resident Ambassador to Poland, Kwee Liong Tek, and Kwee Liong Phing.

There is a Kwee Liong Phing in ICIJ’s Offshore Banking database.


Ngiam Shih Chun, relative of Ngiam Tong Dow, is a board member of JTC Corporation.

Augustin Lee, is Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Manpower (2010+), Deputy Chairman of the CPF Board, and a JTC Board Member (2011+).

Ng Chee Meng, brother of Ng Chee Khern and Ng Chee Peng, was a JTC Board Member (2013-2015).

AGO’s audit of the contracts (total contract value of $510.18 million) for the International Cruise Terminal development project undertaken by Jurong Town Corporation (JTC) revealed lapses in controls and management of contract variations.

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PART 4: Sentosa DC + GSH + Marina Bay + CapitaLand


Kwa Kim Li (niece of Mrs. LKY), Ngiam Shih Chun (relative of Ngiam Tong Dow), and Lt-Gen Bey Soo Khiang are board members of Sentosa Development Corporation.


Former cabinet minister Mah Bow Tan was the fifth biggest shareholder in GSH Corporation in 2014. As of 18 Mar 2014, Mah owned 365,575,000 shares with a current market value of about S$28 million. According to John Harding, Mah Bow Tan’s son, Warren Mah, studied at the prestigious University of Pennsylvania — fully paid for on a scholarship from Monetary Authority of Singapore (a statutory board).


Keppel Corp director Alvin Yeo, who is also the senior partner at law firm Wong Partnership, is paying $6.54 million for a unit on the 32nd floor of the luxury project. Keppel Land director and permanent secretary Niam Chiang Meng is paying $4.577 million for his unit, also on the 32nd floor.


Jennie Chua, icon of Singapore’s hospitality industry, is the former spouse of Goh Kian Chee, the only son of former Deputy PM Goh Keng Swee.

Goh Kian Chee took 5 years to clear $280,000,000 of debt. He is now retired and enjoys leisurely tennis and golf.

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PART 5: Keppel Land + Sentosa Cove + White Group


Tan Yam Pin, director at Keppel Land, has been a member of the Singapore Public Service Commission since 1990. Mr. Tan was appointed as a Member of the Public Service Commission in 1990.

According to Wikipedia, Singapore’s Constitution, and PSC’s 2012 Annual Report:

The Public Service Commission (PSC)’s constitutional role is to appoint, confirm, promote, transfer, dismiss and exercise disciplinary control over public officers in Singapore.

It considers the suitability of candidates for appointment as Chief Executive Officers of Statutory Boards; it is also responsible for the planning and administration of scholarships provided by the Government of Singapore.


Chua Thian Poh was #26 on Forbes’ Singapore’s 50 Richest list (2015).


Three major Chinese community organisations in Singapore — the Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations (SFCCA), Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCCI) and Business China — organised a celebratory dinner for Mr Lee Kuan Yew’s 90th Birthday at Shangri-La Hotel. Photo: Ooi Boon Keong

Mr. Chua is also the President of the Singapore Federation of Chinese Clan Associations (SFCCA) and a long-time grassroots leader, serving as Chairman of Bishan East Citizens’ Consultative Committee.

He started the Ho Bee group of companies and ventured into property development. Ho Bee was the sole bidder for the en bloc sale of Coral Island on Sentosa Cove.

As revealed by AGO, 33 days after he “retired” from SCPL, Mr Chua was allowed to tender for sales of Sentosa Cove land through Ho Bee.


Peh Chin Hua is the executive chairman of White Group, a holding company with properties and business interests in China and Singapore. He was also a Singapore Member of Parliament from 1988 to 2001. He holds numerous positions in various clans, including the Peh Clan Association.

In 2013, White Group signed a $12 billion deal to develop a vast township site in China.

Peh Chin Hua’s younger brother is Desmond Peh Chin Chye, Managing Director of Just Education Holdings. There is a “Peh Chin Chye” in ICIJ’s offshore banking database.

Peh Shing Huei is the son of Peh Chin Hua. Peh Shing Huei was formerly The Straits Times’ China bureau chief, based in Beijing.

Chan Chun Sing: Related?


Based on Cabinet Minister Chan Chun Sing’s logic:

“I am not related to Mr. Lee’s family. . .my surname is Chan and my wife’s surname is Low.”

Thanks to several readers and netizens for contributing to this post.

If anyone has additional info, please contact me to verify the data so that readers can stay informed. Thank you :)


PART 1: PAP Chairman KHAW BOON WAN on Politicians


In 2013, Mr Khaw said that when a person enters politics, there is “no difference between his or her public and private life.” He said the same thing in 2012.


a) “Ascertaining his relationship is important as it also ascertains meritocracy or nepotism.”
(– Alvin Ong)

b) “According to CCS: my surname is Chan, my wife surname is Low, how are we related to Lee? So he wants to say only Lee’s can be related to Lee? Funny…”
(– Nelson Chan)

c) “CCS became full minister in a short span of time without any significant accomplishment. I wonder why.”
(– Bruce Wee)


1. CHAN CHUN SING: “I’m Not Related to Mr. Lee”


Chan Chun Sing at funeral of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. LKY). Source: AsiaOne

In 2011, a netizen posted a screenshot on a forum, which showed Chan Chun Sing standing behind members of Lee Kuan Yew’s family at the funeral of Mr. Lee’s wife, Kwa Geok Choo.

As to whether he is related to LKY, Chan Chun Sing said:

“I was at the funeral because the Army, under my charge then, was assigned the task of honouring the late Madam Kwa with the ceremonial gun carriage procession. . .My surname is Chan and my wife’s surname is Low. I don’t have any close relatives with the surname Lee as far as I know.”

Source: AsiaOne

  • Reader’s Comment: If Chan Chun Sing was at Kwa Geok Choo’s funeral in the “official capacity as the Chief of Army,” technically he should be dressed in formal military attire. Even then, he should be with other guests or military personnel. 

State-controlled newspaper, The Straits Times, mentioned that Chan Chun Sing’s parents are divorced (in an article dated 8 March 1988).

This ST article (20 August 1988) mentions Chan Chun Sing’s mother’s and sister’s names:

  • Mother: Kwong Kait Fong
  • Sister: Chan Siew Yin

His father’s name has not been mentioned.

The above two images are most likely of Chan Chun Sing’s wife, whose surname is Low. Her first name has not been mentioned.


Monica Lee Kim Mon, who married a Chan, is the sister of Lee Kuan Yew. Her spouse was George Chan Chor Cheung, son of Chan Wing from Kuala Lumpur.

Chan Wing made his fortune in 1897 at age 24 with the opening of Hong Fatt Tin Mine. He had more than 20 children and was the richest person in Kuala Lumpur up to 1941. Chan Wing and 15 family members studied in Cambridge University (LKY’s alma mater). He had residences in Hong Kong, Bangkok and Singapore. He passed away in 1947.


George Chan and Monica Lee in an LKY Lunar New Year family photo. Source: Peranakan Association Magazine Issue 1, 2015

George Chan Chor Chueng was a designer involved in the building of Jurong Bird Park [Kwa Soon Bee (brother of Mrs. LKY / Kwa Geok Choo) used to be the Chairman of Jurong Bird Park].

George Chan Chor Cheung passed away in October 2012. He is said by family members to have “never said a bad word about anyone.”


Nassim Jade Purchases. Image from

P.S. Chan Chee Chiu is a son of George Chan Chor Cheung. Monica Lee Kim Mon purchased a unit with Chee Chiu in the Nassim Jade scandal.

  • Reader Tip: The marriage record of George Chan Chor Cheung and Monica Lee Kim Mon can be retrieved from the Singapore Registry of Marriages for the month of October 1951.


Ho Ching’s mother’s name is Chan Chiew Ping. She was from Taiping, Malaysia.

4. CHAN SIBLINGS + Mary SEET-CHENG (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)


Alan Chan and sister, Chan Heng Chee. Source: SG Tatler

Alan Chan Heng Loon, Public Service Commission (PSC) Member and former principal private secretary to Lee Kuan Yew, has two “illustrious siblings“: Professor Chan Heng Chee and Chan Heng Wing.

Alan Chan was Deputy Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Chan Heng Chee is Ambassador-at-Large for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Chan Heng Wing is a senior advisor in Singapore’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Mary Seet-Cheng is a Senior Specialist Adviser at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. She is married to Leonard Cheng Tye Loke, and has the same first and last name as Lee Kuan Yew’s aunt (Mary Seet nee Chua Swee Neo).

There is a “Leonard Cheng Tye Loke” listed in ICIJ’s Offshore Banking database.

4. SEET LI LIN and JHO LOW from 1MDB


Seet Li Lin partying with Leonardo DiCaprio in Las Vegas and LA. Source: Sarawak Report / FB

  • Reader Tip: Please note this important fact. LKY’s mother’s sister married a SEET whose family has many siblings. One of them, SEET LI LIN, has become NOTORIOUS because he is the right hand man of Malaysia’s Jho Low and the 1MDB Scandal. This has appeared even in the US media. Seet is the son of one of the siblings related to Arthur Seet Keong Hoe (son of Seet Cheng Kang, who married Lee Kuan Yew’s aunt).

Seet Li Lin is a close colleague of Jho Low, both of whom are involved with the 1MDB scandal.

It is interesting that this “Seet Li Lin” has not been mentioned in local media such as The Straits Times.

From Seet Li Lin’s Facebook:


The PAP Manifesto reminds me of my best pieces of work in college: loads of nice pics, big on fluff, a light touch on content, says a lot yet very little, somewhat convincing but actually confusing. Most important of all, we always get away with it by gaming the system.

Seet Li Lin, 21 April 2011

UPDATE (24 Oct 2018): According to MSN, “Seet Li Lin, said to be a Singaporean from media reports, is living in Hong Kong and is connected to a Shanghai consulting firm owned by one of 37-year-old Low’s companies.”

UPDATE (7 Sept 2015): According to Sarawak Report, Jho Low’s father, Larry Low Hock Peng, is on the list of frozen Swiss bank accounts.


Larry Low Hock Peng, father of Jho Low. Source: Sarawak Report

A quick summary of names in Jho Low’s family:

  • Grandfather = Low Meng Tak
  • Father = Low Hock Peng, Larry
  • Son #1 = Jho Low
  • Son #2 = Szen Low

5. NG SIBLINGS (Parents and Spouses)

Ng Chee Khern was Chief of Air Force from 2006 – 2009. Ng Chee Peng was Chief of Navy from 2011 – 2014, and was appointed the CEO of CPF in Jan 2015. Former defence chief, Ng Chee Meng, has been touted as a potential office-bearer.


Ng Brothers | Image by Roy Ngerng

Ng Chee Peng’s wife is Valerie Low Yin Lee, who shares the same surname as the wife of Chan Chun Sing. Ng Chee Meng’s wife is Datin Michelle Lim Bee Leng. Ng Chee Khern’s wife is Elaine Ng, CEO of National Library Board.

Ng Ban Hin and Lee Hang Foe are the parents of the Ng siblings. A photo of them is available on Page 9 in this PDF document.


Ng Ban Hin (Father) | Source: NLB


Lee Hang Hoe (Mother) | Source: NLB


Prof. Ivy Lim Swee Lian, CEO of Singhealth, is married to Minister for Defence, Ng Eng Hen.

Ivy Lim Swee Lian has the same first name and last name as Ivy Lim Seok Cheng, sister-in-law of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. Lee Kuan Yew). Ivy Lim Seok Cheng’s father was Lim Chong Pang, whose father-in-law was Lee Choon Guan.

Lee Choon Guan co-founded the Chinese Commercial Bank in 1912. In 1932, the Chinese Commercial Bank and the Ho Hong Bank (founded by Lim Peng Siang) merged with the Overseas-Chinese Bank to form the Overseas-Chinese Banking Corporation (OCBC Bank).

Ng Eng Hen is said to be the nephew of real estate tycoon, Ng Teng Fong (who had 10 siblings).

  • Reader Tip: A forum poster said the Chinese newspapers mentioned Ng Eng Hen as “the nephew” of Ng Teng Fong. Does anyone have a newspaper clipping?

Ng Eng Hen at the wake of Ng Teng Fong.


The late Mr. Ng Teng Fong (founder of Far East Organization) was billed as Singapore’s richest man by Forbes magazine in September 2009.

Robert Ng Chee Siong is the son of Ng Teng Fong. Robert Ng is a board member of Temasek and is married to Yeoh Saw Kheng (楊素瓊), the third daughter of Dr. Yeoh Ghim Seng, the former Speaker of Parliament of Singapore (Source: CapitalProfile PDF).

Ng Teng Fong’s family has close ties to the governments of Singapore, Hong Kong and China (Source: PDF document). The Ngs have also enjoyed a close relationship with Lee Kuan Yew.



Low Yen Ling, 2011

Low Yen Ling, Parliamentary Secretary for the Ministry of Social and Family Development, has refrained from revealing the names of her husband and her father in previous interviews.

Could she be related to the spouses of Chan Chun Sing and Ng Chee Meng?

LKY’s Relations to Opium Trade


Thanks to some netizens for fact-checking, etc.

Verification, excerpts, and additional info below.



1. Kwa Geok Choo’s uncle-in-law is Tan Chin Tuan, whose nephew is Tony Tan.

Kwa Geok Choo’s mother was Wee Yew Neo. Wee Yew Neo’s father was Wee Theam Seng, the oldest Straits Chinese Christian and Manager of Chinese Commercial Bank.

2. Wee Theam Seng had a brother called Wee Theam Tew (a graduate of Raffles Institution and later a solicitor, who went to China in 1904 and served as the secretary of Prince Su, the military governor of Peking and Minister to the Emperor).

3. From Twentieth century impressions of British Malaya: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources:

Wee Theam Tew, one of the leading Chinese legal practitioners of Singapore, comes of a family who have resided in the Straits Settlements for three generations. His grandfather, Mr. Wee Theam Soo, came from China as a literary graduate, and, together with Dr. Lim Boon Keng’s father and Mr. Cheng Hong Lim’s father, to whom reference is made on another page, acquired the first opium farm in the colony.

4. Lee Kuan Yew’s father, Lee Chin Koon,  was a storekeeper and depot manager for the Shell Oil Company. Lee Chin Koon’s father was Lee Hoon Leong. Hoon Leong worked with the Heap Eng Moh shipping line for tycoon Oei Tiong Ham. He rose in Oei’s estimation, until he was afforded power of attorney over the tycoon’s assets in Singapore.

5. Oei Tiong Ham was the wealthiest man of his era in the Dutch East Indies, and he made a fortune as an opium revenue farmer (opium farms were only part of his commercial empire).

Oei’s vast fortune amounted to 200 million guilders at his death and he lived in a large house in Semarang resembling a fairytale palace. There were no less than 40 servants and huge banquets specializing in different cuisines were given.

  • NOTE: The surnames Wee and Oei are part of the Huang Surname Clan (which puts “Wee Theam Soo” and “Oei Tiong Ham” in the same clan).

6. Oei Tiong Ham had 8 official wives who bore him 13 daughters and 13 sons (plus 18 concubines with a total of 42 children). His son, Oei Tjong Tiong, married Lim Chit Geck, the daughter of Lim Nee Soon.

7. Lim Nee Soon was one of the pioneers of rubber planting. His big investments in the pineapple industry won him the nickname “Pineapple King.” He was a generous charitable benefactor with a keen interest in social and community matters, and one of the most influential businessmen of the day.

Lim Nee Soon was a leading member of the Teochew clan association Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan.

On the formation of Huay Kuan association:

. . .The Kongsi’s accounts were kept private by the Seah family, and undisclosed even to other members. In 1929, a rival Teochew faction led by Lim Nee Soon founded a new association known as the Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan (潮州八邑会馆). The Huay Kuan mounted a lawsuit against the Seah family, alleging that the latter monopolised Kongsi affairs.

Lim Nee Soon was also a close friend of Dr Sun Yat Sen.


Special guests MP Mr Teo Ser Luck and Deputy Prime Minister Mr Teo Chee Hean at the Teochew Poit Ip Huay Kuan Anniversary Dinner.

8. When Lim Nee Soon was eight years old, he was left in the care of his maternal grandfather, Teo Lee.


“Teo Lee is the great-great-grandfather of Teo Chee Hean, DPM of Singapore.” Source: Teo Lee Family

Teo Lee’s descendant is Teo Chee Hean, who is the cousin of Ivy Lim Seok Cheng. Ivy Lim’s spouse is Kwa Soon Chuan, the brother of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. LKY / “The Dragon Lady“).

+ + +


Some excerpts on the history of opium trade in the region.

a) Over time, Tan [Seng Poh] rose through the ranks of Singaporean Chinese society to become a Justice of the Peace, an Honorary Magistrate, a Municipal Councillor as well as a wealthy opium farmer.

After 1870, syndicates of Straits Chinese controlling the lucrative opium farms extended their involvement in the trade beyond Singapore to Bangkok, Saigon, and Shanghai.

Source: Asia Research Institute — Transcultural Diaspora: The Straits Chinese in Singapore, 1819-1918 (PDF Download)

+ + +

b) One Chinese witness (Mr. Koh Seang Tat) says that he has never known of heard of an opium consumer breaking himself of the habit, and this view is supported by one medical man.
(Appendix 151)

Opium is commonly smoked by the Chinese in this colony, especially by the lower classes, artisans, and coolies.
(Appendix 165)


Singapore, view inside opium den, 1941. Photographer: Harrison Forman.

Opium consumption is considered as a great vice by our Chinese. The habit of opium consumption in many cases reduces the habitués to extreme poverty and eventually to a stealthy and dishonest life.
— Chan-U-Pai, Director of the Po Leung Kuk, Hong Kong (Apendix 204)

Source: First Report of the Royal Commission on Opium, 1894

+ + +

c) Coolies were given to opium inhaling to relieve their tired bodies of its soreness and to gambling in an attempt to escape from their misery. The whites and wealthy Chinese employed the coolies mainly because of their willingness to work hard for little money.

Source: Blog to Express

+ + +

d) “. . .that most debasing and pernicious drug, opium, in combination with the Chinese secret societies of which spring many of those daring outrages and robberies that disgrace our settlements.”  (Pg-449)

In 1910 in Singapore, the development from opium farming to Opiumregie, like elsewhere, was completed by the opening of a modern opium factory. Once the mechanization of opium production and distribution was a fact, mass addiction could be realized. (Pg-453)

It is well described by Trocki:

“Most important was the expansion of the global market communicated to Singapore through the major trades: opium, capital, and manufactures from India and the West. In addition to redirecting the commodity flows to the West, the shift created a vast demographic eruption. It was as if the current of wealth flowing out of China began to pull with it the Chinese peoples themselves. Singapore came into being as a result of these global forces.”

Opium played in this global shift the most crucial role. Singapore’s opium scene in the 19th-century is, therefore, much more important than only in a local or regional context.

Officially, nearly half of all revenues of the British was earned by opium. It cannot demonstrate how much private or individual British officials, military men or bankers earned. Indirectly, it also suggests how much a very few super-wealthy people (Chinese) pocketed as their share of the opium rents in this century.

Source: History of the Opium Problem: The Assault on the East, ca. 1600 – 1950 (BRILL)

+ + +

e) Chan Wing was a man of principle and did not invest in sinful businesses like opium dens, tax-farming and slave trading.

Source: Insider’s Kuala Lumpur (3rd Edn)

+ + +

f) In 1879, Banhap, together with Cheang Hong Lim (one of the trio of Singapore opium farmers who made up the “Great Syndicate”) launged a daring attempt to seize control of the entire Asian opium trade.


Cheang Hong Lim 章芳琳 (1841-1893). Source: RL

When Banhap and Cheang Hong Lim acquired the Hong Kong opium farm, it was not simply an attempt to extend their control over yet another colonial port. The Wo Hang and Yan Wo, the two major opium syndicates in Hong Kong, also controlled the coolie trade of Hong Kong. . .the two firms also sold prepared opium to Chinese immigrants. . .The goal of Banhap and Cheang was to take control of this trade in prepared opium which would have been worth about $3.5 to $4 million per year.

They were among the wealthiest men in Asia at the time and were linked to a vast network of kin, business associates, clansmen, and dependents.

Source: Connecting Seas and Connected Ocean Rims (BRILL)

+ + +

g) The Singapore opium farmer simply purchased his supplies on the open market in Singapore. He processed the opium into chandu and distributed it to local opium shops for retail consumption by the population of Chinese coolies.

As a group, it is clear that the farmers were among the most influential and “respectable” of Singapore’s Chinese. They were also economic leaders and were deeply involved in the papper and gambier economy of Singapore and the surrounding territories. These plantations were the major employers of the Chinese coolies who were the major consumers of opium. It is also probable [that] the farmers were intimately connected to the Chinese secret societies of Singapore.

Source: The Rise of Singapore’s Great Opium Syndicate, 1840-86 (Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Department of History, NUS)


1. This photo album has some Singapore opium photos (uploaded by Julia Di Lorenzo).


2. This chart shows the intermarriages between Straits Chinese Banking Families in Singapore. Done by Roy Ngerng (originally posted on his blog, TheHeartTruths).

Wee Theam Seng (Mrs. LKY’s grandfather + senior OCBC banker on the right side of the opium image) is circled in this image.


3. This post takes a look at the close historical ties between the Singapore government and Burmese military junta.

PAP: Other Relatives


Thanks to some diligent netizens for contributing to this post.

Links for verification and additional info below.



Teo Chee Hean is the father of Teo Eng Siang. Teo Eng Siang received a PSC Overseas Merit Scholarship in 2005 to study International Relations and Philosophy at Brown University (scholarship funded by Singapore taxpayers). Brown University’s tuition fee for 2015-2016 is US$48,272 per annum.


According to John Harding’s website, Mah Bow Tan is the father of Warren Mah (who received an MAS scholarship to study overseas; funded by Singapore taxpayers).


Juthika Ramanathan, CEO of the Supreme Court, is the daughter of former president S. R. Nathan.

4. YONG YING-I = Daughter of YONG PUNG HOW


Private wake of Lee Kuan Yew at Sri Temasek, Istana on 23 March 2015. Mr Lee’s close friend and former Chief Justice Yong Pung How with his wife and daughter. Source: AsiaOne

Yong Ying-I is the daughter of former Chief Justice Yong Pung How, a close friend of LKY.

5. GRACE FU = Daughter of JAMES FU

Grace Fu, senior minister of state, is the daughter of former press secretary to LKY, James Fu.


Ngiam Siew Ying and Ngiam Shih Chun are relatives of Ngiam Tong Dow.


Prof. Wong Tien Yin, a former President’s Scholar, is the son of former senior minister of state, Dr. Aline Wong.

8. a) CHUA SIAN CHIN = Brother-in-Law of WONG YIN HIN

Chua Sian Chin, former Minister of Home Affairs, is the brother-in-law of Wong Lin Ken (Home Affairs Minister from 1970 – 1972). The above images show that Chua Sian Chin married Alice Tan, who is the sister of Lilli Tan. Lilli is the spouse of Wong Lin Ken.

Photos of Tan sisters from National Archives of Singapore (Alice Tan and Lilli Tan).



Wong Lin Ken, former Minister for Home Affairs.

Wong Lin Ken was found to have committed suicide in 1983.

1) Francis Seow opines this reflected the level of trust and faith that Lee Kuan Yew had in Rajaratnam instead of Jek Yuen Thong and Home Affairs’ Dr. Wong Lin Ken. Wong subsequently returned to academia after being told by Lee senior that he did not ‘want a liberal’ (Straits Times, 5 May 1971) in his cabinet, and later committed suicide.

Source: PBWorks: SG Press and The Media Enthralled

2) By the 1968 elections, LKY’s efforts to assemble a group of successors had begun — bright PhD holders such as Chiang Hai Ding and Wong Lin Ken were fielded, but he quickly learnt that political leadership required “other qualities besides a disciplined mind able to marshal facts and figures.”

Source: Today Online

9. FOO MEE HAR = Descendant of CHIA HOOD THEAM

MP Foo Mee Har held a number of senior positions in Standard Chartered Bank.


Foo Mee Har, born in Malaysia. Source: Today Paper

She is one of several MP’s who were not born in Singapore.

Foo Mee Har’s mother-in-law is Madam Eleanor Tan Kok Neo. In a 2014 article, Madam Tan, then 79, had paid her stepdaughter (Wendy Chan) $1 million “not to say or write anything about her or her family, who are descendants of Mr Chia Hood Theam, a prominent Peranakan and bank agent born in the mid-19th century.” Wendy Chan and her brother were born out of wedlock after Dr Chan, who was married to Madam Tan, had an affair.

As a netizen says:

“Rich people’s problems.”

10. CHEW SIBLINGS = Grandchildren of TAN CHIN TUAN (uncle of TONY TAN whose son-in-law = SIMON CHESTERMAN)


Chew Siblings: Grandchildren of Tan Chin Tuan.

Chew Gek Khim, Chew Kwee San and Chew Gek Hiang are the grandchildren of Tan Chin Tuan (uncle of President Tony Tan). They are thus relatives of Kwa Geok Choo through Tan Chin Tuan (their mother is Dr. Tan Kheng Lian, daughter of Tan Chin Tuan and cousin of Kwa Geok Choo).

Chew Kwee San is an Advocate and Solicitor of the Supreme Court in Singapore. Chew Gek Khim sits on the board of Singapore Exchange Limited and is a Member of the SSO Council and Board of Governors of the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. Chew Gek Hiang serves on the advisory panel of the GST Review Board.

Tony Tan became the 9th NUS chancellor in late 2011; Simon Chesterman was installed as NUS law dean in early 2012. Chesterman is also Editor of the Asian Journal of International Law and Secretary-General of the Asian Society of International Law. Tony Tan is the current NUS chancellor as of June 2015.

Simon Chesterman is married to Patricia Tan, daughter of Tony Tan.

11. YEOH GHIM SENG = Father-in-Law of ROBERT NG (son of property tycoon NG TENG FONG)

Yeoh Ghim Seng, former Speaker of the Parliament, had 5 daughters. One of them, Yeoh Saw Kheng, is the spouse of Robert Ng, who is the son of Far East Organization founder Ng Teng Fong.

Ng Teng Fong’s family has close ties to the governments of Singapore, Hong Kong and China (Source: PDF document). The Ngs have enjoyed a close relationship with Lee Kuan Yew.

PAP Relatives: Former and Current MPs


Thanks to some readers for contributing this list of names. Links below for verification.



Fong Sip Chee is the father of Arthur Fong.

Major Fong Sip Chee was Minister of State (Culture) in the 1980’s.


Arthur Fong, NLB.

Arthur Fong stepped down from politics in August 2015; he was the Assistant VP of OCBC bank from 1996-2000, and has been an NLB board member since 2011.


Ho See Beng is the father of Ho Geok Choo.

Ho See Beng was NTUC’s first president from 1964 to 1966, and described by PM LHL as “the archetypical grassroots MP.”

Ho Geok Choo was elected as a Member of Parliament for the West Coast GRC from 2001 to 2011. A former Vice Chairman of the PAP Women’s Wing, Mdm Ho has close to 30 years of experience in GLCs and the private sector.


Former PAP MP Choo Wee Khiang is the uncle of Desmond Choo Pey Ching, PAP candidate for Tampines GRC.

Choo Wee Khiang was charged with 3 counts of corruption in 2011. A quote by Mr. Choo below.


“One evening, I drove to Little India and it was pitch dark but not because there was no light, but because there were too many Indians around.”
— Former PAP MP Mr Choo Wee Khiang, in a speech in Parliament in 1992


Ong Ah Heng was the Member of Parliament for Nee Soon Central until 2011. He was appointed a non-executive Director of ComfortDelGro Corporation Limited on 18 February 2003.

Ong Ah Heng is the father of Ong Teng Koon, a commodities trader and MP for Sembawang GRC.


Lee Yock Suan is a former cabinet minister and member of Parliament. His son is Desmond Lee Ti-Seng.



Denise Phua and husband Tay Kiong Hong (right); Denise Phua and younger siblings (left). Source: ST

  • Reader Tip: Mentioned in Chinese newspapers during former elections that Cynthia Phua is the sister of Denise Phua.


Former cabinet minister Chua Sian Chin is the father of Chua Eng Leong.


Lim Kim San was a former senior cabinet minister and trusted political confidante of Lee Kuan Yew.

Pang Kim Hin is his nephew. A reader says that the Chinese newspapers reported that Lim Boon Heng is a nephew of Lim Kim San as well.

Powerful Siblings in Singapore


Links and text below for verification. Thanks to everyone who contributed to this post.

Reader Tip:  

“In Russia, they have the oligarchs and China the Princelings. In Singapore, we have the Siblings.”


// UPDATE (4 Sept 2015):

Will update the bigger image later (Chew siblings; grandchildren of Tan Chin Tuan).


Grandchildren of Tan Chin Tuan (uncle of President Tony Tan): Chew Gek Khim, Chew Kwee San and Chew Gek Hiang. They are relatives of Kwa Geok Choo through Tan Chin Tuan.

Chew Kwee San is an Advocate and Solicitor of the Supreme Court in Singapore. He is a Member of the Heritage Industry Incentive Program (Hi2P) Approval Committee of the National Heritage Board of Singapore and Member of Audit and Investment Committee of the Boy’s Brigade in Singapore.

Chew Gek Khim sits on the board of Singapore Exchange Limited and is a Member of the Securities Industry Council of Singapore, the SSO Council and Board of Governors of the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies. She was Chairman of the National Environment Agency Board of Singapore from 2008 to 2015.

Chew Gek Hiang serves on the advisory panel of the GST Review Board.


1. Alan Chan Heng Loon, Public Service Commission (PSC) Member and former principal private secretary to Lee Kuan Yew, has two “illustrious siblings“: Professor Chan Heng Chee and Chan Heng Wing.

According to Singapore’s Constitution and PSC’s 2012 Annual Report:

The Public Service Commission (PSC)’s constitutional role is to appoint, confirm, promote, transfer, dismiss and exercise disciplinary control over public officers in Singapore.

It considers the suitability of candidates for appointment as Chief Executive Officers of Statutory Boards; it is also responsible for the planning and administration of scholarships provided by the Government of Singapore.


Kate Middleton, Prince William, PM LHL, and Ho Ching. Source: Getty

2. Ho Ching, wife of PM Lee Hsien Loong, has two brothers and a sister. Her sister is Ho Peng and one of her brothers is Ho Sing.

3. Teo Chee Hean has three sisters by the names of Hee Lian, Chai Lian and Swee Lian.

There is a Teo Swee Lian (director) in Singtel who was formerly a Special Advisor in the Managing Director’s Office at the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS). There is a Teo Hee Lian who was formerly the Director of Institute of Public Administration and Management (IPAM). This Teo Hee Lian has had “extensive experience writing cabinet memoranda, parliamentary replies, reports, papers, minutes of meetings, and speeches.”

Will update this section if anyone can verify that these two ladies are Teo Chee Hean’s sisters. Images below from CSCollege and Singtel.

4. Richard Ong and Charles Ong are Chinese-Malaysian brothers. Charles Ong spent 10 years managing investment projects for Temasek Holdings, and was described as the “right-hand man” to Temasek chief Ho Ching.

The last two funds Richard led or co-led (in 2011) raised around $5 billion combined. At a 2 percent management fee — an industry standard — that’s $100 million in annual fees alone.

According to Wikipedia and China Economic Review:

. . .the true reason that the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) denied Goldman permission to name [Richard] Ong to his new position was due to his family ties to Singaporean sovereign wealth fund Temasek Holdings and his own role in the money-losing sale of former Thai prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra’s Shin Corporation to Temasek.

  • NOTE: Ho Ching’s (CEO of Temasek Holdings since 2004; wife of PM Lee Hsien Loong; on the Forbes Power Woman list every year since 2004) mother, Chan Chiew Ping, was from Taiping, Malaysia.


1. Ng Chee Meng has two notable brothers: Ng Chee Khern and Ng Chee Peng (both were President’s Scholars). Ng Chee Khern was Chief of Air Force from 2006 – 2009. Ng Chee Peng was Chief of Navy from 2011 – 2014, and was appointed the CEO of CPF in Jan 2015. Former defence chief, Ng Chee Meng, has been touted as a potential office-bearer.


Ng Brothers | Image by Roy Ngerng

As Roy Ngerng wrote in a FB post:

“Ng Chee Meng is expected to run for the PAP and would be the highest-ranking military officer to run for election. He could even potentially become a prime minister. This means that he could head the government. If so, the Ng family would control the government, the military and our CPF.

2. Dr. Yaacob Ibrahim has a sister, Zuraidah Ibrahim (political deputy editor at The Straits Times, married to Cherian George). Yaacob and Zuraidah have a brother, Ismail Ibrahim, who was the first Malay President’s Scholar in SIngapore. Thanks to The Unseen Singapore for making the original identification.

3.  Kwa Soon Bee, former Permanent Secretary for Health and Director of Medical Services, is a brother of Kwa Geok Choo (Mrs. Lee Kuan Yew). Kwa Soon Chuan was the first local appointed to the Colonial Administration. He is a brother of Kwa Geok Choo.

4. Lee Su Shyan, Money Editor / Business Editor at The Straits Times, is said to be the sister of Lee Yi Shyan. Will update this section if anyone can provide more verification.


1. Raymond Lim Siang Keat is the brother of Benny Lim, former ISD director.

2. Thio Shen Yi, President of the Law Society (2015), is the brother of Thio Li-Ann.

Thio Li-Ann’s views have been described as “anti-gay.” She described homosexuality as a “gender identity disorder,” said anal sex was akin to “shoving a straw up your nose to drink,” and opposed the repeal of a law in the penal code — known as Section 377A — that criminalizes sex between men.


(YouTube video of Thio Li-Ann in Parliament).

The Thio siblings’ maternal grandfather, Reverend Huang Yang Ying, was the founding Principal of Anglican High School (1956-1958).


Thio family. Source: BookSG

3. Chua Lee Hoong is the sister of Chua Mui Hoong. According to a reliable offline source, Chua Mui Hoong was a desk officer in the ISD.

4. Chew Men Leong took over from Chew Hock Yong as the chief executive of Land Transport Authority (LTA) in 2014. A reader pointed out that these two could be brothers or relatives.


Chew twin brothers. Source: Jasmine Tan / FB

5. Lieutenant-Colonel Chew Chun Chau is the identical twin brother of SLTC Chew Chun Liang. Chew Chun Liang is 1.5 hours younger than Chew Chun Chau.

6. Lim Suet Fern, wife of Lee Hsien Yang (brother of PM Lee Hsien Loong), has a brother called Lim Suet Wun, former CEO of Tan Tock Seng hospital.

PAP: Royal Bloodline (Combined Family Tree)


Verification and some excerpts on “the aristocracy” below.

Presented in 4 sections:

1. Combined PAP Family Tree (image)
2. Excerpts on Meritocracy / Aristocracy
3. Verification (text + links)
4. Additional Info

P.S. Thanks to some hardworking netizens for help with research and fact-checking. Above image of LKY from Facebook.



1. “Meritocracy means a country picks its best citizens, not the relatives of the ruling class, to run a country.”
— Kishore Mahbubani, Dean of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (2015)

2. “Without a natural aristocracy. . .society will lose out.”
— Lee Hsien Loong, 2015

tan chin tuan

Group photo of founding of OCBC. FRONT ROW: Tan Chin Tuan (Tony Tan’s uncle) is fourth from left. BACK ROW: Kwa Siew Tee (Mrs. LKY’s father) is third from left. Source: NAS / Veritas

3. OCBC has been described as a “clan bank” with “familial ties between the bank’s directors and close networking.”
— The Star, 2011

4. “It is all but impossible to distinguish between legitimate and ill-gotten gains because there is no public disclosure of the wealth of officials and their relatives. Conflict-of-interest laws are weak or nonexistent. The business dealings of the political elite are heavily censored in the state-controlled news media.”
— ‘Princelings’ in China (NYT)

5. The networks of hundreds of GLCs that are popularly referred to as Singapore Inc are not just vehicles for the conduct of business. Collectively they provide an extensive and almost inescapable vehicle of elite patronage and power.


Chan Heng Chee (left), former political critic, and Lee Kuan Yew during LKY’s visit to the U.S. in 2000.

There have been scholars who have been critical of the government in their youth, but by the time they have arrived in government, they have always transformed themselves into models of elite solidarity.
— Michael Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore

6. It makes it a lot easier to understand Singapore if you [begin] from the premise that it is a Chinese family business, complete with a patriarch, an eldest son, guanxi networks and questions of cross-generational continuity.
— Michael Barr, The Ruling Elite of Singapore

7. Guanxi refers to the benefits gained from social connections and usually extends from extended family, school friends, workmates and members of common clubs or organizations. It is customary for Chinese people to cultivate an intricate web of guanxi relationships, which may expand in a huge number of directions, and includes lifelong relationships. The more you ask of someone the more you owe them. Guanxi can perpetuate a never-ending cycle of favors.
— Wikipedia (Guanxi)


Chua Kim Teng (LKY’s maternal grandfather – centre row, 4th from left), Leong Ah Soon (centre row, 4th from right) Lee Kuan Yew’s mother Chua Jim Neo (centre row, 2nd from left), and her brother Chua Kheng Hoe (last row, second from left) was also related by marriage to Lee family (Family Photo from Lee Suan Yew)

8. “Family ties develop and strengthen over generations through family, clan, or tribal group activities and ceremonies. This family network can be a source of prestige as well as socioeconomic and political sucess.”
— Encyclopedia of Social Networks (SAGE)

9. “Fundamental change to the political regime will have to await Lee Kuan Yew’s demise. . .any legitimacy that Lee has secured through his personal authority will likely pass with him.”
— Cho Oon Khong, 1995

10. “It may not be imperative for us to know the family history of all the faces that appear in Singapore Tatler. But Singaporeans should at least know more about the roots of those who hold this country’s destiny in their hands.”
— Tan Sai Siong (Straits Times)


11. “Cling to people you can trust — your family, your clan.”
— Lee Kuan Yew, 1984 National Day Rally (video below)


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1. Verification for the right side of the image can be found on this post, re: how Tony Tan is related to PM Lee Hsien Loong.

2. Wee Kim Wee’s mother was Chua Hay Luan. Chua Hay Luan is the sister of Chua Kim Teng (father of Chua Jim Neo, LKY’s mother). Mr. Wee addressed Chua Jim Neo as “cousin” in the preface of a book published in the mid-70s. The preface was mysteriously removed from later publications.

3. This post has some text and links on how Teo Chee Hean is related to PM LHL.

In a 2006 Sunday Times article, Teo Chee Hean paid tribute to Tan Chin Tuan by saying:

‘I remember [TAN Chin Tuan] because he was very kind to my father (Teo Cheng Guan). After the war, he gave my father a job at OCBC and my father worked with him for many years. He was always very kind to our family.’


Newspaper article about Teo Chee Hean’s great-granduncle.

  • READER TIP: Newspaper article about Teo Chee Hean’s family (mostly about Teo Eng Hock, Teo Chee Hean’s great-granduncle). The man on the right is Teo Chee Hean’s father. The woman in the centre with black cheongsam is Teo Chee Hean’s mother (Mrs. Teo Cheng Guan, or Madam TAN Suang). 张志贤 is Teo Chee Hean’s Chinese name.

4. On Teo Chee Hean’s link to Ivy Lim (sister-in-law of Kwa Geok Choo / Mrs. LKY): Teo Chee Hean’s father and Lim Chong Pang are the same generation. Teo Chee Hean and Ivy Lim Seok Cheng (Lim Chong Pang’s daughter) are the same generation. So they would address each other as 表姐, 表弟. In English, “cousin.” The link is through Teo Chee Hean’s great grand aunt (Teo Choon Lian) and Ivy Lim’s great grandfather (Lim Peng Nguan; spouse of Teo Choon Lian).

5. On Lim Kim San: Lim Chong Pang’s father was Lim Nee Soon. Lim Nee Soon’s daughter, Lim Mui Gek, married Tan Huck Khong. Tan Huck Khong’s uncle is Tan Chong Teck. Tan Chong Teck’s grandson is Pang Kim Hin — Tan Chong Teck’s eldest daughter, Tan Poey Quee, married Pang Leong Chwee and is the mother of Pang Kim Hin (married to Chew Kheng Imm). Pang Leong Chwee’s sister, Pang Gek Kim, is the wife of Lim Kim San. Thus Lim Kim San is the uncle of Pang Kim Hin.

6. On Goh Keng Swee: Lim Chong Pang’s father-in-law was Lee Choon Guan. Lee Choon Guan’s father-in-law was Tan Keong Saik. Tan Keong Siak’s father’s brother had a son named Tan Kiong / Keong Keng, who had a daughter called Tan Siok Kim. Tan Siok Kim was married to Chew Cheng Yong. Chew Cheng Yong’s brother-in-law was Goh Leng Inn, father of Goh Keng Swee.

* Tip: Many of the names mentioned above were the leading pioneers in banking and trading sectors during The Straits Settlements. They also held many leading positions in the municipal commission where they worked closely with the British colonial government in the running of domestics affairs of Singapore.

Hence, they all played influential roles in the politics and economy during that time.

As such, readers are encouraged to do their own reading on these pioneers.

+ + +


1. According to several netizens, this is the “main branch” of Singapore’s Royal Bloodline.


2. This chart shows the intermarriages between Straits Chinese Banking Families in Singapore. Done by Roy Ngerng (originally posted on his blog, TheHeartTruths).


3. A Feudalism chart showing the 99%’s place in society (image by Amendment Gazette).


4. Collection of “elitism” quotes by PAP Ministers.